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India - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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India. Nepal. Sri Lanka. Pakistan. Bhutan. Bangladesh. Afghanistan. Maldives. 1) Location. SIZE AND ORIGINS. Formed when landmass collided with Asia. South Asia is about ½ the size of the USA. South Asia contains 20% of the world’s population. Mountains.

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Sri Lanka








  • Formed when landmass collided with Asia.

  • South Asia is about ½ the size of the USA.

  • South Asia contains 20% of the world’s population.



The Himalayas are the world’s highest mountains, with 20+ peaks above 24,000 ft.

The Hindu Kush mountains have served as a barrier for years. Khyber Pass is one of the few ways past them.

The Ghats block moisture from reaching the interior, causing the Deccan plateau to be dry.

Mount everest
Mount Everest

  • Highest peak in the world, 29.029ft above sea level.

  • First officially climbed all the way in 1953 by Sir Edmund Hillary and Tenzig Norgay.

  • 4% of climbers who attempt Everest do not survive.



  • 3 Major Rivers

    • Indus

    • Ganges

    • Brahmaputra

  • All 3 rivers start in the Himalayas

  • Fed by Glaciers

Climate of south asia
Climate of South Asia -

  • South Asia has many climate zones, mainly affected by mountains and elevation

    -Dry in the northwest

    -Tropical in the north, between the mountain ranges

    -Dry in the southern interior, wet along the coasts

Landforms created by rivers
Landforms created by Rivers

  • Alluvial plains – soil carried down from mountains and deposited when river overflows banks.

  • Estuary – partially closed area of seawater with several rivers flowing into it.

  • Islands

    • Sri Lanka

      • Lush tropical island

    • Maldives

      • Archipelago – group of islands

      • Atoll – Low lying top of submerged volcano

    Importance of rivers
    Importance of Rivers

    • Fertile Soil for agriculture, accounts for 50% of jobs

    • Transportation of people and goods

    • Water Supply for 1.2 Billion in India

    • Hydroelectric Power

    • Religion - Ganges is sacred (Hinduism)

    Natural resources
    Natural Resources

    • Forests

      • Important resource

      • Deforestation is a concern

    • Minerals

      • Generate much of Energy

      • India 4th in Coal, Has enough oil to support ½ its needs

      • Uranium for Nuclear Power

      • Iron Ore Deposits – world’s leaders in exporting iron ore

      • Mica – key in electrical equipment (computers)

      • Gemstones

        • Diamonds (India)

        • Sapphires & Rubies (Sri Lanka)

    Severe weather
    Severe Weather

    • Monsoons – seasonal winds that bring heavy rainfall to South Asia during the summer.

      • Highly unpredictable

      • Causes floods in areas, droughts in others

    • Cyclones – (Hurricanes) can be very destructive to areas heavily populated along the coast.

    • Storm Surge – rising sea level causes flooding along coast


    • 1.7 billion people, mostly in India.

    • Birth, death, and infant mortality rates still very high compared to most of the world, but gradually improving due to better education, sanitation, and basic medical care.

    • Growth rates actually “middle of the pack”, despite high population.


    Large numbers of South Asians immigrate to other regions – educated persons often move to Western countries (especially UK and USA) for technology positions, while uneducated persons usually go to the Middle East to work as laborers.

    Transportation and infrastructure
    Transportation and Infrastructure

    • South Asia lacks of cross-border infrastructure: Due to economic and political reasons, cross-border trade in South Asia accounts for a mere 5% of total trade.

    • South Asia lacks of adequate access to basic social and economic services in rural areas. Poor access to transport infrastructure and services leaves hundreds of millions of people in South Asian countries without access to basic social and economic services.

    • The road safety problem in the region is increasingly alarming. While India has the highest number of road deaths in the world with over 114,000 road fatalities each year (WRS, 2009). Bangladesh, with relatively low motorization, has the worst fatality rate in the region with 6300 deaths per 100k vehicles.. The USA by comparison has 15 per 100k.

    Cultures of south asia
    Cultures of South Asia

    • Different mixes of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Islam – often causes tension in the region

  • Thousands of languages!

  • Poverty remains huge problem. India is one of the worlds fastest growing economies, but other nations lag behind.

  • Political geography of south asia
    Political Geography of South Asia

    Nations in South Asia:

    • Afghanistan became independent in 1919.

    • Four were created from British

    • India after WW2 (1947)

    • Pakistan (1947)

    • Sri Lanka (1947)

    • Bangladesh (1971)

    • Two are small countries located deep in the Himalayas, isolated until recent times

    • Bhutan

    • Nepal

    • One is a tiny island chain in the Indian Ocean – Maldives.

    Brief history of south asia
    Brief History of South Asia

    Ancient Times – Hinduism and Islam, caste system, several huge empires in region.

    British Rule – Britain ruled all of South Asia from 1776 to 1948. “British East India Company” controlled almost all commerce until 1858, when control passed to the “British Raj”.

    1947 - Independence and Partition – British freed and divided region into India (mostly Hindu) and Pakistan (mostly Muslim). Influenced heavily by Mahatma Gandhi.

    Modern Era – Wars between India and Pakistan. Growing economic power of India, and Pakistan’s crisis with Islamic radicals and Taliban.

    What is the caste system
    What is the “Caste System”?

    • Ancient origins, predating Hinduism.

    • Divided South Asian people into different jobs and ranks in society.

    • Very complex, thousands of smaller groups.

    • Abolished in 1947, still exists.

    • Mostly broken down in the cities, still common in rural India

    Culture hearth of south asia the indus river

    • Where an early culture emerged and developed

      • Arts and trade routes emerged from isolated tribes and villages to towns and beyond.

      • Hinduism emerged from the beliefs and practices brought to India by the Indo-Europeans (Aryans). (6th century BC)

      • Buddhism emerged during the 6th century BC; made the state religion of India in 3rd century BC

      • Islam sweeps through central India from the 8th -10th centuries AD


    Who – Ancient priests of India

    When – 5000 –3000 BCE

    Where – India

    Holy Books – Vedas, Bhagavad-Gita

    Major Divisions – Numerous traditions

    Basic Beliefs

    Polytheistic – Thousands of deities, many interconnected.

    Reincarnation through infinite lives and forms

    Dharma – proper place or role in the universe and society (caste)

    Karma – cause and effect occurring across lives.

    Ultimate goal – oneness with “Brahman” (God, Reality)

    Simple, really… follow your DHARMA to improve your KARMA so that you reincarnate in a better position to reach BRAHMAN.


    Who – Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha)

    When – 500 BC

    Where – Northern India

    Holy Books -Tripitaka

    Major Divisions – Mahayana, Theravada

    Basic Beliefs

    No universal creator, only powerful beings. Reincarnation, dharma, and karma still apply.

    Four Noble Truths: Life is suffering, suffering caused by craving, craving caused by ignorance, ignorance relieved by knowing the Truth.

    The “Eightfold Path” allows one to attain Nirvana, freedom from existence and suffering


    Who – Muhammad

    When – circa 620AD

    Where – Arabian Peninsula

    Holy Books –Quran and the Hadith

    Major Divisions – Sunni, Shia

    Basic Beliefs

    There is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is the messenger of God

    Quran is word of God.

    Muslims must perform the “Five Pillars of Faith”.



    Who –Guru Nanak

    When –1400’s

    Where –Northwestern India

    Holy Books –AdiGranth

    Basic Beliefs –

    Monotheistic, believe in reincarnation.

    All people are equal in God’s eyes.

    Humans must free themselves from negative thoughts and actions to attain salvation, become one with God.

    Teachings are passed down through teachers, or “Guru”.

    Sikh’s are bound by the “Five K’s”… kēs (uncut hair), kaṅghā (small wooden comb), kaṛā (circular steel or iron bracelet), kirpān (sword/dagger), and kacchā (special undergarment).



    Who –Indus Valley priests

    When –900’s BC

    Where –India

    Holy Books –None

    Major Divisions – “Whiteclad”, “Naked”

    Basic Beliefs –

    No divine being, universe is cyclical

    Reincarnation is eternal

    Goal is to perfect your soul and become an enlightened being

    Jains believe in AHIMSA, total non-violence against all living things

    Monks take many vows and give up nearly everything…. Even clothes, in some cases.

    5 regions nations of south asia

    5) Regions – Nations of South Asia



    Sri Lanka







    • ¾ of all South Asia land area; slightly more than 1/3 of the U.S.

    • A federal republic consisting of 28 states, 6 Union Territories, and 1 National Capital Territory

    • Population: 1.150 billion people

    • 15 official languages. English and Hindi most common.

    • About 80% Hindu, 20% Muslim

    • Emerging economic and regional military power, with advanced industrial and scientific capacity.

    Who was mahatma gandhi
    Who was Mahatma Gandhi?

    • Father of modern India (1869-1948)

    • Preached non-violence, civil disobedience.

    • Salt March – 1930, walked to sea to protest British salt tax.

    • After WWII, Gandhi pushes for independence for India

    • Would nonviolent resistance have worked on other groups besides the British, like the Nazi’s for example? Why or why not?


    Trauma of Partition

    • Gandhi wanted one unified India.

    • Partition - split in 1947 into Hindu (India) and Muslim (Pakistan)

    • Riots, refugees, violence – 14 million people moved, ½ million died

    • 1948 Gandhi assassinated by Hindu extremist (intolerant of other religions).

    India in transition
    India in Transition

    • India divided– modern caste system. New wealth, huge poverty at same time.

    • Bollywood – Indian film industry, largest in world!

    • Booming population, bigger than China soon. 1.1 billion people.

    • High tech industriespower the economy.

    • Huge, overcrowded cities


    • Twice the size of California

    • A federal republic with 4 provinces, one territory, and 1 capital territory

    • Population: 173 million people

    • Languages: Urdu and English, however 48% speak Punjabi

    • Formerly known as West Pakistan. Independent since 1947.

    • Primarily Sunni Muslim

    • Continuing struggles with internal ethnic groups, India, Afghanistan

    Crisis in pakistan
    Crisis in Pakistan

    • Pakistan has internal divisions, an unstable government, an expanding young population, and troubles with Islamic Fundamentalists.

    • Tied into the current war in Afghanistan (USA/NATO vs. Al Qaeda/Taliban), which resulted from the 9/11 terrorist attacks.

    • Pakistan is violently divided between those supporting the USA’s efforts, and those supporting the Taliban.

    • Pakistan has 20 to 50 nuclear weapons. These could fall into the wrong hands if Pakistan collapses.

    Conflict between india and pakistan
    Conflict Between India and Pakistan

    • Jammu and Kashmir– In 1947 was Muslim majority, but Hindu ruler. After partition, military of both sides moved on the region and war broke out.

    • After war, it stayed part of India. Sore spot for Pakistan and India, constant guerrilla war.

    • Several wars, including 1971 war that created Bangladesh.

    • Both countries now have nuclear weapons.

      Why do India and Pakistan both feel that they need nuclear weapons?


    • About the size of Texas

    • Population – 30,000,000

    • Mostly Pashtuns, who are Muslims.

    • Extremely poor, mountainous country

    • Leading exporter of opium, heroin.

    • US invaded in 2001 after 9/11, to defeat Taliban. Taliban were/are funded partly by Pakistan, which is also helping to fight Taliban.


    • Slightly smaller than Iowa

    • Low elevation and location make almost half of land surface prone to flooding during monsoons.

    • Parliamentary democracy

    • Population: 154 million people

    • Languages: Bangla (Bengali) and English

    • Formerly known as East Pakistan. Independent since 1971.

    • Primarily Muslim

    • Cultivation of rice is the single most important agricultural activity.

    • One of world’s poorest nations.


    • Size of Arkansas

    • A parliamentary democracy, but was a monarchy until 2005

    • Population: 30 million people

    • Languages: Primarily Nepali

    • Primarily Hindu with approximately 10% Buddhist

    • Tourism on Mt. Everest

    • Home of the Gurkha, soldiers famed for bravery and the Kukri knife.


    • ½ the size of Indiana

    • Constitutional monarchy, King Wangchuck

    • Population: 700,000

    • Official language: Dzongkha (pronounced “zonka”)

    • Bhutan is still relatively isolated

    • Almost entirely Buddhist

    Sri lanka
    Sri Lanka

    • Slightly larger than West Virginia

    • Republic with 8 provinces

    • Population: 21 million people

    • Languages: Sinhala (80%) and Tamil (20%)

    • Primarily Buddhist (70%)

    • Civil War (1983-2009) between Buddhist Sinhalese majority government in south, and Hindu Tamil minority (“Tamil Tigers”/LTTE) in north.


    • Small archipelago, 26 separate atolls.

    • Population - 300,000

    • Most of nation is less than 5ft above sea level, highest point only 8ft.

    • Islamic, run on sharia law.

    • Economy based on fishing and tourism

    • Maldives is heavily involved with UN global warming treaties and conferences.