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Reacting Acids and Bases. On the way to neutralization. What happens when acids and bases are mixed?. Neutralization These reactions are often new compounds in solution Example: H Br ( aq ) + Na OH ( aq )  H 2 O (l) + NaBr ( aq )

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reacting acids and bases

Reacting Acids and Bases

On the way to neutralization

what happens when acids and bases are mixed
What happens when acids and bases are mixed?
  • Neutralization
  • These reactions are often new compounds in solution

Example:

HBr(aq) + NaOH(aq) H2O(l) + NaBr(aq)

Acid Base results in water and a salt

mixing
Mixing
  • Adding an acid to a base slowly consumes the base
  • When all the base is reacted (consumed/used up) the solution is considered neutralized
      • A salt and water remains
  • The solution is now neither acidic nor basic
what is a salt
What is a Salt?
  • A compound made up of both positive and negative ions

HBr(aq) + NaOH(aq) H2O(l) + NaBr(aq)

Acid Base results in water and a salt

what happens now
What happens now…
  • If any more acid is added at this point the solution then becomes more acidic
  • These changes can be seen by using a universal indicator

Universal indicator: change many colours as pH changes

An indicator that changes colour as soon as all the base is consumed can also be used

qualitative neutralization
Qualitative Neutralization
  • Mixing approximate amounts of acid and base
  • Cleaning chemical spills - using baking soda to clean an acid spill
  • The amount of baking soda doesn’t matter as long as the spill is neutralized
quantitative neutralization
Quantitative Neutralization
  • This is a process called titration
  • The chemist mixes exact amounts of acid and base to identify when the solution hits the neutralization point
looking further at neutralization
Looking further at Neutralization
  • Neutralization reactions are special forms of double displacement reactions

Example:

HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) H2O(l) + NaCl(aq)

what happens
What happens:
  • The hydrogen ion from the acid reacts with the hydroxide ion resulting in…

Water

H+ + OH- H2O

what can we use acid base reactions for
What can we use acid/base reactions for?
  • Hair dressers use these reactions in order to perm or straighten hair
    • The hair curling solution is a base
    • It changes the structure of the hair
    • Allowing it to accept or undo a curl
    • Applying the neutralizer solution stops the process
    • Allowing the hair structure to reform, maintaining its new shape
where else
Where else?
  • Fire extinguishers…

Sulfuric acid and sodium bicarbonate react creating large amounts of foam bubbles (CO2), which smother the flames

read nelson
Read:Nelson
  • Acid-Base reactions in the home
  • Acid-Base reactions in baking
  • Antacids
  • Found on pg 318 – 319
  • Acid Deposition page 116-118
read mhr
Read:MHR
  • Acid-Base reactions Antacid
  • Acid-Base reactions Acid Spills
  • Acid-Base reactions – Acid Precipitation
  • Acid-Base reactions – Renewing Acidified Lakes
  • Acid-Base reactions – Acid Leaching and Metals
  • Found on pg 236 - 246