THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
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THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION. Changes in religious thought and institutions challenged the foundations of Medieval Society and became a catalyst for increased secularization of government and society in Europe.

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Essential understandings

Changes in religious thought and institutions challenged the foundations of Medieval Society and became a catalyst for increased secularization of government and society in Europe.

Religious and political institutions are often in overlapping spheres which creates conflict and cooperation within society.

The scientific and technological innovations of the 17th, 18th, and 19th, centuries dramatically altered the course of human existence and laid the foundations of the modern world.

Essential Understandings


Introduction the question that transcends the centuries
Introduction: The Question that Transcends The Centuries foundations of Medieval Society and became a catalyst for increased secularization of government and society in Europe.

  • Can religion and science co-exist?

  • Why does this question still dominate intellectual and spiritual authorities?

  • What, in your opinion, are the historical origins of this debate?

  • John Calvin on Astronomy: Moses wrote in a popular style things which, without instruction, all ordinary persons endowed with common sense are able to: but astronomers investigate with great labor what ever the wisdom of the human mind can comprehend: The study should not be prohibited, nor this science condemned…


Scientific revolution
Scientific Revolution foundations of Medieval Society and became a catalyst for increased secularization of government and society in Europe.

  • Essential Questions:

  • What are the historical origins of the Scientific Revolution?

  • How does scientific and technological innovation alter the course of human existence?

  • How did challenges to religious thought and institutions erode the foundations of Medieval Society leading to increased secularization of government and pluralism in Europe?


THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION foundations of Medieval Society and became a catalyst for increased secularization of government and society in Europe.

CREATION OF A NEW WORLDVIEW

  • Questioning of old knowledge & assumptions

  • Gradual replacement of religious & superstition presumptions

  • Gradual rise of science & reason, originating with the Renaissance

  • Weakening authority of the R.C.C


THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION foundations of Medieval Society and became a catalyst for increased secularization of government and society in Europe.

NEW DIRECTIONS IN ASTRONOMY & PHYSICS

  • PTOLEMY: Geocentricism, supported by scripture

  • NICOLAUS COPERNICUS (1473-1543): Heliocentrisim,

  • TYCHO BRAHE (1546-1601): More accurate position of planets, unique observations of the heavens

  • JOHANNES KEPLER, (1571-1630): Elliptical planetary movement “God’s geometrical plan for the universe.”


THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION foundations of Medieval Society and became a catalyst for increased secularization of government and society in Europe.

NEW DIRECTIONS IN ASTRONOMY & PHYSICS

  • GALILEO GALILEI(1564-1642)

  • Constructed first functional telescope

  • Described motion of heavenly bodies

  • Major controversies with the RCC

  • Spends later years under house arrest


THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION foundations of Medieval Society and became a catalyst for increased secularization of government and society in Europe.

NEW DIRECTIONS IN ASTRONOMY & PHYSICS

  • ISAAC NEWTON (1642-1727)

  • Universal Gravitation: combined laws of planetary & earth motion

  • Numerous practical applications

  • Father of modern physics and calculus


Three laws of motion
Three Laws of Motion foundations of Medieval Society and became a catalyst for increased secularization of government and society in Europe.

  • An object in motion will remain in motion unless acted upon by a net force, and an object at rest will remain at rest unless acted upon by a net force; this is also known as inertia.

  • Force equals mass multiplied by acceleration.

  • For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.


THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION foundations of Medieval Society and became a catalyst for increased secularization of government and society in Europe.

DISCOVERIES IN OTHER SCIENCES

  • Botany: new medical applications

  • Anatomy: better understand of how human body worked

  • Microscope invented


THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION foundations of Medieval Society and became a catalyst for increased secularization of government and society in Europe.

PHILOSOPHICAL THOUGHT

  • FRANCIS BACON (1561-1626)

  • Inductive reasoning: working from particular to general conclusions

  • Empiricism & scientific method


Novum organum new intstruments
Novum Organum: New Intstruments foundations of Medieval Society and became a catalyst for increased secularization of government and society in Europe.

  • "Printing, gunpowder and the compass: These three have changed the whole face and state of things throughout the world; the first in literature, the second in warfare, the third in navigation; whence have followed innumerable changes, in so much that no empire, no sect, no star seems to have exerted greater power and influence in human affairs than these mechanical discoveries." [7]

  • What three innovations have changed our world?


THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION foundations of Medieval Society and became a catalyst for increased secularization of government and society in Europe.

PHILOSOPHICAL THOUGHT

  • RENÉ DESCARTES (1596-1650)

  • Geometry: any algebraic formula could be plotted as curve in space

  • Deductive Reasoning: starting with general assumptions & working downward

  • Cartesian Dualism: division of reality into “thinking substance” & “extended substance”

  • Stoicism: virtue is to maintain a will that is in accord with nature.


THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION foundations of Medieval Society and became a catalyst for increased secularization of government and society in Europe.

POLITICAL THOUGHT

  • THOMAS HOBBES (1588-1679)

  • Applied new empiricism to society

  • Negative, mechanistic view of human nature

  • Strong sovereign necessary to control conflicting desires

  • Social Contract Theory: People create government for mutual protection

Hobbe’s Leviathan


THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION foundations of Medieval Society and became a catalyst for increased secularization of government and society in Europe.

POLITICAL THOUGHT

  • JOHN LOCKE (1632-1704)

  • TABULA RASA: humans born with blank slate

  • Natural Laws: Two Treatise of Government

  • Social Contract Defined: Government exists to protect life, liberty, and property

  • Early foundations of the enlightenment


Performance based learning assessment
Performance Based Learning Assessment foundations of Medieval Society and became a catalyst for increased secularization of government and society in Europe.

  • Assignments:

  • Part 1: Select a historical character from below. After researching the background and contributions of the person, submit a resume for the person, including a cover letter and a letter of recommendation. You may design an ideal job as the target of your application. You can find a template at www.jobs.com. After researching the degree to which he actually succeeded in life, determine whether the response letter would be positive or negative and write it accordingly. Include reference to some of his original work.

  • Create a series of interview questions to evaluate and examine a candidate for a 16th century job interview


Online lesson

Nicolaus Copernicus foundations of Medieval Society and became a catalyst for increased secularization of government and society in Europe.

Tycho Brahe

Johannes Kepler

Galileo Galilei

Isaac Newton

Meguel de Cervantes Saavedra

John Milton

John Bunyan

Francis Bacon

Rene Descartes

Blaise Pascal

Baruch Spinoza

Part 2: Answer the following question in your journal: Evaluate the validity of the following statement: "New opinions are always suspected, and usually opposed, without any other reason but because they are not already common." John Locke

Part 3: Complete the Scientific Revolution chart in you note book:http://www.freewebs.com/apeuronfhs/chartsandgraphs.htm

Online Lesson


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