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  1. PURE – IndiaOverview Dubai – Jan 2006

  2. PURE-India: Investigators and sites Chandigarh Prof. Rajesh Kumar Jaipur: Prof. Rajeev Gupta Bangalore Mario Vaz Anura V Kurpad Chennai Prof V Mohan Trivandrum Prof. Soman

  3. TIME LINE OF PURE-India Dec2005 ~ 22,000 Dec 2002 ~5000 Other centres start data Dec 2001 ~ 2500 subjects Jan 2001 Data starts-B’lore PURE-India Mtg Identification of Other centres (3) July 2000 Conceptualisation Chandigarh As 5th centre

  4. Recruitment Status – PURE India Centers

  5. PURE – INDIA Recruitment Status

  6. The PURE-India Study is carried out in states with very diverse characteristics s N

  7. Present analysis: numbers

  8. The PURE-India Study is carried out in states with very diverse characteristics

  9. Household income (Rs/month) by location ~ $ 235 ~ $ 45

  10. Education level below high school (%): Urban-Rural - males

  11. Education level below high school (%): Urban-Rural - females

  12. TV ownership (%) by location

  13. 2-wheeler ownership (%) by location

  14. Kitchen mixer ownership (%) by location

  15. Current tobacco use (%): Urban-Rural - males

  16. Current tobacco use (%): Urban-Rural - females

  17. Current alcohol use (%): Urban-Rural - males

  18. % of males who are sedentaryby location

  19. % of females who are sedentaryby location

  20. Daily dietary intakes in urban and rural populations: Bangalore centre

  21. % of males who are overweight/obese (BMI ≥ 25)by location

  22. % females who are overweight/obese (BMI ≥ 25)by location

  23. Mean Waist-hip ratio: Males by location

  24. Mean Waist-hip ratio: Femalesby location

  25. Serum total cholesterol (mg/dl): Males - by location

  26. Serum total cholesterol (mg/dl): Females - by location

  27. Prevalence of hypertension (%): Males - by location

  28. Prevalence of hypertension (%): Females - by location

  29. Hypertension: known, treated and controlled(%): - by location

  30. Prevalence of diabetes (%):Males - by location

  31. Prevalence of diabetes (%):Females - by location

  32. Prevalence of CHD (%):Males - by location

  33. Prevalence of CHD (%):Females - by location

  34. Daily dietary intakes in urban slums relative to other urban and rural populations a Age and gender adjusted means,

  35. Anthropometric profiles in urban and rural populations a Age and gender adjusted

  36. Prevalence: diabetes and hypertension in urban slums relative to other urban and rural areas

  37. Summary • There is considerable heterogeneity in the variables that we have studied and in disease outcomes, across locations (urban-rural-urban slum), gender and region (centre) • Urban-rural risk transitions generally follow patterns of development. In Kerala, there is evidence of a reversal of the transition with the rural population. • Dietary data needs to analysed in most centres – this when available will help us understand some of the changes that we have observed across centres and locations • Non responder data and issues of response bias are being analysed

  38. CHALLENGES / ISSUES OF THE STUDY • Subjects in rural areas / slums unwilling to participate due to loss of daily wages • Responder burden due to the length of questionnaires • Working men unavailable during the day / particular seasons. • No perceived benefits in some groups slums / urban areas. • Takes 45 mins to enter one subjects data in the data entry system.

  39. % use of wood as cooking fuel by location

  40. % use of LPG (gas) as cooking fuel by location

  41. Mean Waist circ (cm) : Males by location

  42. Mean Waist circ (cm) : Femalesby location