Introduction to Plastic Surgery. By: Heather Harding. “ Plastikos ”. The term “ plastic surgery ” is derived from the Greek word “ Plastikos ” Means to mold or give form. When was the first reconstructive surgery performed?. As early as 2,000 BCE in India as a form of punishment!
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Introduction to Plastic Surgery By: Heather Harding
“Plastikos” • The term “plastic surgery” is derived from the Greek word “Plastikos” • Means to mold or give form
When was the first reconstructive surgery performed? • As early as 2,000 BCE in India as a form of punishment! • In 600 BCE Sanskrit texts described reconstruction of a mutilated nose using tissue from the cheek
RenaissanceTimes • Primarily rebuilding of nose • Start of experimentation with Indian ideas of using local and distant tissue to reconstruct wounds
War Times • The need for reconstructions launched during World War 1 • Massive disfiguration of burn victims creates new challenges to surgeons
European surgeons Maliniac and Aufricht launch The American Society of Plastic & Reconstructive Surgeons (ASPRS) 1st division of Plastic Surgery in a public hospital is formed By the late 1930s The American Board of Plastic Surgery (ABPS) is created-qualification as plastic surgeon 1920s-1930s Maliniac Aufricht
1940s • The Journal • Debuted in 1946 • Forum for Plastic Surgeons to share their knowledge/discoveries • Plastic Surgery Educational Foundation (PSEF) • Founded in1948 • Supports education on plastic surgery to surgeons and public • Awards scholarships & prizes • Seminars and meetings • Exchange programs w/physicians around the world
1950s • ASPRS is fully board certified • Communication with the public heightens • Television • New innovations • Latest innovation is internal wiring for facial fractures • Being tested in hospitals in Korea
1960s • Public exposure increases number of procedures being performed • Silicone development • Initially used to treat skin imperfections • 1962 begins usage as breast implant device
Personal advertising of surgeons is banned Specialties and individual procedures start getting marketed through brochures Flame retardant children’s clothing is developed 1970s & 1980s Plastic Surgery
1990s • Internet • Websites for surgeons to post questions, get answers and share procedure info • ASPRS becomes ASPS to assure that plastic surgery and reconstructive surgery are the same • Silicone Implant Crisis due to complications • Links to illness • The Horrors of Breast Implants is released nationally on TV • Toll free hotline is set up regarding silicone implant safety • Silicone implants can only be used for reconstruction under clinical studies • Health Care Reform • Insurance companies are required to cover cost of reconstruction breast surgery for women who have undergone a mastectomy
2000s • Botox approval: average 1.1 million injections/year • 10 deaths leads to 3 month pause of office based surgery • Improved Public Perceptions • Magazines and TV shows • By 2006 16.2 million+ surgeries are being performed annually • Reintroduction of Silicone Implant • General patient usage is approved in 2006 after tests prove no connection to illness
Future Challenges • Reducing surgical scarring and patient recovery time • Scar-less healing takes place in the womb, researchers are trying to unlock the secrets of the growth factor environment of it to apply to wounds