2012 ANATOMY(B) & Karen LancourPatty Palmietto National Bio Rules National Event Committee Chairman Supervisor – A&P
Event Rules – 2012 DISCLAIMER This presentation was prepared using draft rules. There may be some changes in the final copy of the rules. The rules which will be in your Coaches Manual and Student Manuals will be the official rules.
Event Rules – 2012 • BE SURE TO CHECK THE 2012 EVENT RULES FOR EVENT PARAMETERS AND TOPICS FOR EACH COMPETITION LEVEL
TRAINING MATERIALS • Training Power Point – content overview • Training Handout - content information • Sample Tournament – sample problems with key • Event Supervisor Guide – prep tips, event needs, and scoring tips • Internet Resource & Training CD’s – on the Science Olympiad website at www.soinc.orgunder Event Information • Biology-Earth Science CD, as well as the Division B and Division C Test Packetsare available from SO store atwww.soinc.org
ANATOMY Event Content: 2012 BASIC ANATOMY (Structure and function) • Respiratory System • Digestive System (new) • Major disorders • Treatment and prevention of disorders PROCESS SKILLS - observations, inferences, predictions, calculations, data analysis, and conclusions.
Respiratory System – Functions Basic functions of the respiratory system are: 1. provides oxygen to the blood stream and removes carbon dioxide 2. enables sound production or vocalization as expired air passes over the vocal chords 3. enables protective and reflexive non- breathing air movements such as coughing and sneezing, to keep the air passages clear 4. control of Acid-Base balance 5. control of blood pH
Respiration Process A collective term for the following processes: • Pulmonary Ventilation Movement of air into the lungs (inspiration) Movement of air out of the lungs (expiration) • External Respiration Movement of oxygen from the lungs to the blood Movement of carbon dioxide from the blood to the lungs • Transport of Respiratory Gases Transport of oxygen from the lungs to the tissues Transport of carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs • Internal Respiration Movement of oxygen from blood to the tissue cells Movement of carbon dioxide from tissue cells to blood
Pulmonary Ventilation The intercostal muscles and the diaphragm work together Inspiration, or inhalation – a very active process that requires input of energy Air flows into the lungs when the thoracic pressure falls below atmospheric pressure. The diaphragm moves downward and flattens while the intercostal muscles contract. Expiration, or exhalation – a passive process that takes advantage of the recoil properties of elastic fibers Air is forced out of the lungs when the thoracic pressure rises above atmospheric pressure. The diaphragm and expiratory muscles relax.
Patterns of Breathing • Apnea – temporary cessation of breathing (one or more skipped breaths) • Dyspnea – labored, gasping breathing; shortness of breath • Eupnea – normal, relaxed, quiet breathing • Hyperpnea– increased rate and depth of breathing in response to exercise, pain, or other conditions • Hyperventilation – increased pulmonary ventilation in excess of metabolic demand • Hypoventilation – reduced pulmonary ventilation • Orthopnea – Dyspnea that occurs when a person is lying down • Respiratory arrest – permanent cessation of breathing • Tachypnea – accelerated respiration
Measures of Pulmonary Ventilation Respiratory volumes – values determined by using a spirometer • Tidal Volume (TV) – amount of air inhaled or exhaled with each breath under resting conditions • Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV) – amount of air that can be inhaled during forced breathing in addition to resting tidal volume • Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV) – amount of air that can be exhaled during forced breathing in addition to tidal volume • Residual Volume (RV) – Amount of air remaining in the lungs after a forced exhalation.
Formulas – Capacities • Vital Capacity – maximum amount of air that can be expired after taking the deepest breath possible (VC = TV + IRV + ERV) • Inspiratory Capacity – maximum volume of air that can be inhaled following exhalation of resting tidal volume (IC = TV + IRV) • Functional Residual Capacity – volume of air remaining in the lungs following exhalation of resting volume (FRC = ERV + RV) • Total Lung Capacity – total volume of air that the lungs can hold (TLC = VC + RV)
Control of Respiratory System • Respiratory control centers – found in the pons and the medulla oblongata • Control breathing • Adjusts the rate and depth of breathing according to oxygen and carbon dioxide levels • Afferent connections to the brainstem • Hypothalmus and limbic system send signals to respiratory control centers
Gas Exchange and Transport • Alveolar Gas Exchange – the loading of oxygen and the unloading of carbon dioxide in the lungs • Oxygen is carried in the blood bound to hemoglobin (98.5%) and dissolved in plasma (1.5%) • Carbon dioxide is transported in three forms • Carbonic acid – 90% of carbon dioxide reacts with water to form carbonic acid • Carboamino compounds – 5% binds to plasma proteins and hemoglobin • Dissolved gas – 5% carried in the blood as dissolved gas
Systemic Gas Exchange • Carbon dioxide loading -The Haldane Effect – the lower the partial pressure of oxygen and saturation of it in hemoglobin, the more carbon dioxide can be carried in the blood • Oxygen unloading from hemoglobin molecules
Blood Chemistry & Respiratory Rhythm Hydrogen ion concentrations -strongly influence respiration Carbon dioxide concentrations -strongly influence respiration Oxygen concentrations - have little effect on respiration
Effects of Exercise on Respiratory System • During exercise the muscle cells use up more oxygen and produce increased amounts of carbon dioxide. • The lungs and heart have to work harder to supply the extra oxygen and remove the carbon dioxide. • Your breathing rate increases and you breathe more deeply. Heart rate also increases in order to transport the oxygenated blood to the muscles. • Muscle cell respiration increases - more oxygen is used up and levels of carbon dioxide rise. • The brain detects increasing levels of carbon dioxide - a signal is sent to the lungs to increase breathing. • Breathing rate and the volume of air in each breath increase - This means that more gaseous exchange takes place. • The brain also tells the heart to beat faster so that more blood is pumped to the lungs for gaseous exchange. • More oxygenated blood is gets to the muscles and more carbon dioxide is removed.
Disorders of the Respiratory System • Clinical Disorders and Diseases of the Respiratory System • Hypoxia – deficiency of oxygen in a tissue or the inability to use oxygen • Oxygen Toxicity – excess oxygen, causing the build up of peroxides and free radicals • Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases – long-term obstruction of airflow and a substantial reduction in pulmonary ventilation • Chronic bronchitis – cilia are immobilized and reduced in number; goblet cells increase their production of mucus → mucus clogs the airways and breeds infection • Emphysema – alveolar walls break down and the surface area of the lungs is reduced • Asthma – allergens trigger the release of histamine and other inflammatory chemicals that cause intense bronchoconstriction • Lung Cancer – cancer of the lung • Acute Rhinitis – the common cold • Laryngitis – inflammation of the vocal folds • Pneumonia – lower respiratory infection that causes fluid build up in the lungs • Sleep Apnea – Cessation of breathing for 10 seconds or longer during sleep • Tuberculosis – pulmonary infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis; reduces lung compliance
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM – digest foods extracellular (outside of cell) in digestive canal
BASIC PROCESSES OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM • INGESTION -- intake of food • DIGESTION – breakdown of food • Mechanical Digestion –physical breakdown • Chemical Digestion – chemical breakdown of macromolecules to monomers • Absorption--Transport of the products of digestion into the blood • Defecation--Elimination of undigested waste
ORGANS OF DIGESTIVE TRACT (Mouth to anus) • Mouth - Chewing, Digestion begins • Pharynx - Swallowing • Esophagus - Transports food to stomach • Stomach - Storage of food,Digestion of protein • Small Intestine - Majority of digestion and absorption of food • Large Intestines - Absorption of water, Waste storage • Anus - Elimination of waste
ASCESSORY ORGANS SECRETE FLUIDS INTO DIGESTIVE TRACT • Salivary Glands - Secrete salivary amylase • Liver - Produces bile • Gallbladder - Storage of bile • Pancreas - Secretes pancreatic amylase and other digestive enzymes
MOUTH • Opens to outside to facilitate feeding • Aids in preparation of food for digestion • Foods are broken down mechanically by chewing • Saliva is added as a lubricant from the auxiliary saliva glands • Saliva contains amylase, an enzyme that digests starch • Serves as an organ for speech and pleasure • Includes cheeks, lips, tongue, palate, teeth– primary & secondary
TEETH • Incisors (8) – for biting food • Canines (4) - for grasping and tearing food • Bicuspids (8) – for grinding and crushing food • Molars (12) – for grinding food
ESOPHAGUS a simple tube between the mouth and stomach – peristalsis aides in swallowing
STOMACH • Enzyme digestion of proteins initiated • Foods reduced to a liquid form • Walls lined with millions of gastric glands • Several kinds of cells in gastric glands • Very little absorption from stomach – some water, ethanol, drugs as aspirin, and certain ions
SMALL INTESTINE • most of chemical enzymatic digestion occur • almost all nutrients are absorbed • Accessory glands – liver, gall bladder, and pancreas provide secretions to assist with chemical enzymatic digestion
LIVER and GALL BLADDER • Liver: - provides bile salts to the small intestine, which are critical for digestion and absorption of fats. • Gallbladder – stores bile
PANCREAS • Pancreas: - provides digestive enzymes to the small intestine which are critical for digestion of fats, carbohydrates and protein.
LARGE INTESTINES Colon: • liquid residue – mainly water with undigested materal • water is absorbed, • bacterial fermentation takes place • feces are formed. Rectum: collects undigested waste Anus: expels undigested waste – muscles to control exit and prevent leakage.
DIGESTIVE PROCESS • Ingestion – intake of food • Digestion – breakdown of food bit by bit into molecules small enough to be absorbed Mechanical Digestion – physical breakdown of food Chemical Digestion – chemical breakdown of macromolecules to monomers • Absorption – transport of productions into the blood • Elimination (Defecation) - elimination of undigested waste
CHEMICAL DIGESTION • CARBOHYDRATES • PROTEIN • FATS • NUCLEIC ACIDS
Common Disorders of Digestive System • Stomach and duodenal ulcers • Cancers of the digestive system • Diarrhea • Lactose Intolerance • Hepatitis • Crohn’s Disease, GERD, Diverticular Disease, Celiac Disease (National)
Role of Fiber in Digestion • Fiber is found mostly in plant • There are two types – insoluble fiber and soluble fiber • Insoluble fiber is a type of fiber which cannot be dissolved in water • Insoluble fiber draws water to the intestine, increasing the bulk and softness of waste products • Soluble fiber which can be dissolved in water • Soluble fiber can be digested slowly and it slows the digestive process and keeps the stomach fuller longer leaving the body feeling full for a longer period of time • Digestion and absorption of carbohydrates are slower so that glucose (sugar) in food enters the bloodstream more slowly, which keeps blood sugar on a more even level • The slow absorption of sugar gives the body an opportunity to regulate blood sugar levels