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20 th Century European History. Short & Long Questions. 20 th Century International Relations. Phase I 1919 – 1939 The Uneasy Peace (SLIDES 3-36) Treaty of Versailles Weimar Republic Mussolini ’ s Italy Wall Street Crash Great Depression Rise of Extremism League of Nations

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20 th Century European History

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20th Century European History

Short & Long Questions


20th Century International Relations

Phase I1919 – 1939

The Uneasy Peace(SLIDES 3-36)

  • Treaty of Versailles
  • Weimar Republic
  • Mussolini’s Italy
  • Wall Street Crash
  • Great Depression
  • Rise of Extremism
  • League of Nations
  • Nazi Germany
  • Appeasement
  • Munich Conference

Phase III1945 – 1990

The Cold War(Slides 62-74)

  • Divided Germany
  • Europe Divided
  • NATO & Warsaw Pact
  • SuperPowers
  • Operation Vittles: Berlin Blockade
  • The Truman Doctrine
  • The Korean War
  • Sputnik I
  • Yuri Gagarin
  • NASA
  • Cuban Missile Crisis
  • The Vietnam War
  • SALT

Phase II1939 – 1945

World War II(Slides 37-61)

  • Invasion of Poland
  • Blitzkrieg
  • The Phoney War
  • Hitler’s Turns West
  • The Maginot Line
  • Fall of France
  • Vichy France
  • Operation Dynamo
  • Operation Eagle (Battle of Britain)
  • Operation Sealion
  • Operation Barbarossa
  • Battle of Stalingrad
  • Pearl Harbour
  • Final Solution
  • Operation Overlord: D-Day
  • The Battle of the Bulge
  • The Manhattan Project
  • Fall of Berlin
  • The Holocaust
  • Hiroshima & Nagasaki
phase i 1919 1939 the uneasy peace


Phase I: 1919 – 1939The Uneasy Peace



Night of the Long Knives


War Guilt Clause

Der Fuhrer



Brownshirts (SA)

Acerbo Law

Nuremberg Laws

Wall Street Crash




Il Duce

March on Rome

Enabling Law



Great Depression

Fourteen Points

Battle for Grain

Weimar Republic

treaty of versailles 1919
Treaty of Versailles (1919)


  • Lost Alsace-Lorraine to France & Danzig to Poland (and all its overseas colonies)
  • Had to reparations of 6.6 billion marks to France, Belgium & Britain
  • Army reduced to 100,000 men
  • U-boats scrapped
  • Surface navy reduced

Article 231: ‘War Guilt Clause’Whereby Germany accepted complete responsibility for the war and the damage it caused

war guilt clause 1919
War Guilt Clause (1919)

Article 231: ‘War Guilt Clause’Whereby Germany accepted complete responsibility for the war and the damage it caused

This would become a item of contention & controversy in Germany from 1920 on, providing Hitler & the Nazis with a reason to call the Weimar Republic a “nation founded in defeat” and a means to attract German Nationalists to their extreme ideology.

’Dolchstoßlegende’: ‘Stab in the back’ myth (Nazi accusation towards German politicians of 1918)

4 new countries created after world war ii
4 New Countries Created after World War II
  • Austria
  • Hungary
  • Yugoslavia
  • Czechoslovakia

Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points:One of President Wilson’s 14 Points was that of ‘self-determination of small nations’. This helped to break up old empires and create many new small nations throughout Europe.

march on rome 22 nd 29 th october1922
March on Rome (22nd – 29th October1922)
  • The Italian National Fascist Party marched on Rome, demanding to be made the new government of Italy
  • The Blackshirts (‘Squadristi’) led the march on Rome
  • 30,000 men took part in the march
  • The Italian King, fearing a civil war, invited Mussolini and his party to form a new government for Italy
  • Contrary to popular belief, Mussolini did not take part in the march. Staged photos were later taken
the blackshirts squadristi
The Blackshirts‘Squadristi’
  • Italian Fascist Militia
  • Strongly pro-nationalist
  • Supported Mussolini & the Italian Fascist Party
  • Intimidated political opponents
  • Attacked Communist parties & groups
acerbo law 1923
Acerbo Law (1923)

A law passed in Italy in 1923 whereby the political party who won the most seats would automatically get 2/3 of the seats in the Italian Parliament.

Ostensibly introduced to create strong, stable governments, the law was in fact introduced to give Mussolini and the Italian Fascists dominance over the parliament.

reasons why mussolini s party gained support after 1919
Reasons Why Mussolini’s Party Gained Support after 1919
  • Many Italians felt that they should have received more land in the Paris Peace Settlement and resented the little they received.
  • Mussolini promised to crush communism and take on the mafia gangs
  • Italy was heavily in debt after the First World War and Mussolini promised to bring strong, stable government to Italy
  • Effective use of propaganda
ovra o rganization for v igilance and r epression of a nti fascism
OVRAOrganization for Vigilance and Repression of Anti-Fascism
  • Italian Secret Police in Mussolini’s Italy
  • Founded in 1927
  • Leader: Arturo Bocchini
  • Arrest, detain & torture opponents of fascism in Italy
battle for grain
‘Battle for Grain’
  • Poor marshland was drained & reclaimed for wheat production. Government gave grants to farmers to invest in machinery & fertiliser.
  • Tariffs placed on imported bread
  • Mussolini wanted to reduce Italy’s balance of trade deficit (due to imports). He wanted to make Italy as self-sufficient as possible
  • Italy was almost entirely self-sufficient in wheat production by 1940

Mussolini ‘working’ in the fields, bringing in the harvest (Propaganda)

weimar germany 1919 1933
Weimar Germany 1919 - 1933
  • Founded in the aftermath of the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II.
  • City of Weimar was the capital of the new republic.
  • Gustav Streseman was the Prime Minister of Weimar in 1923 and Foreign Minister from 1924 – 1929.
  • The Young Plan & Dawes Plan (American loans) helped to alleviate the financial burden on Weimar, particularly reparations & employment.
threats to the weimar republic 1919 1933
Threats to the Weimar Republic (1919 – 1933)
  • Both Communist (KPD) and Fascist (NSDAP) parties threatened the stability of Weimar Germany.
  • Associated with defeat of World War One, many Germans disliked the Weimar Republic as being artificial and weak.
  • Weimar suffered from depression & hyperinflation from 1920 – 1923 due to the enormous strain on its economy from payment of the war reparations.
  • Weimar Republic joined the League of Nations in 1925 with the signing of the Locarno Pact, which declared that Germany would respect the western borders set out in the Treaty of Versailles.
extremist uprisings in weimar republic
Extremist Uprisings in Weimar Republic


Nationalist & Fascist

Kapp Putsch - nationalist uprising (1920)

Beer Hall Putsch – Fascist (1923)

  • Spartacist Uprising (1919)
2 reasons for growth of fascism in europe after world war one
2 Reasons for Growth of Fascism in Europe after World War One

Fear of Communism

Unstable Economies & High Unemployment

Many European countries suffered greatly from the Wall Street Crash and following Depression throughout Europe.

In Germany, there were over 6 million workers unemployed by the time Hitler & the Nazis took power in 1933, promising to eradicate unemployment

  • Most western countries were afraid of communism spreading to their countries after the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 in Russia.
  • Because of this, many people supported fascist parties as they were seen to be strongly anti-communist
wall street crash 1929
Wall Street Crash (1929)
  • 4th October – 29th October 1929
  • Investors (up to 25,000,000) had invested steadily in a growing American Stock Exchange during the 1920s.
  • However, when rates began to drop, people rushed to sell their shares and caused the Stock Exchange to collapse
  • On 29th October – ‘Black Tuesday’ the American Stock Exchange lost 30 Billion Dollars worth of shares through hurried sales. The event plunged USA into the ‘Great Depression’, which also affected all of Western Europe
lateran treaty 1929
Lateran Treaty (1929)

The Treaty recognised:

  • Catholic religion as the official state religion, with the Church being granted special authority over education & marriage laws
  • Also, the treaty meant that Italy recognised the Vatican as an independent city-state
reasons why hitler nazis came to power in 1933
Reasons Why Hitler & Nazis Came to Power in 1933

Resentment at the Treaty of Versailles

Failure of democratic governments to deal with economic crisis following the Wall Street Crash

Fear of communist groups staging a revolution & taking power in Germany

the brownshirts sa germany
The Brownshirts(SA)Germany
  • Ernst Rohm (leader)
  • Militia of ex German soldiers & officers (WW1) that supported Nazi party demonstrations & speeches
  • Strongly pro-nationalist & anti-communist
  • Disrupted rival party gatherings and clashed with communist groups
enabling act 1933
Enabling Act (1933)
  • Introduced in 1933 after the Reichstag Fire, this law granted Hitler the right to ‘rule by decree’
  • This meant that Hitler could make decisions and enact policies without consulting the German Parliament, in times of emergency
  • In effect, it made him a dictator as soon after this, all other political parties were banned in Germany, creating a totalitarian state.
night of the long knives june 30 th july 2 nd 1934
Night of the Long Knives ( June 30th – July 2nd1934)
  • Ernst Rohm & hundreds of leading members of the Brownshirts (SA) assassinated by Nazis.
  • The SA leadership was targeted by Hitler as they refused to become part of the German Army (Wehrmacht)
  • Hitler knew he needed the support of the German High Command, who refused to allow a ‘second’ private army operate in Germany.
nuremberg laws 1935
Nuremberg Laws (1935)

Under these laws, Jews ........

  • Were forbidden from marrying Germans (non-Jews)
  • Lost their citizenship of Germany (became ‘state subjects’)
  • Could not hold public office or own property
  • Forced to wear the Star of David
nuremberg rallies 1927 1939
Nuremberg Rallies1927 - 1939

Nazi Party annual parades of the Nazi Party and its followers

Organised by Albert Speer

Leni Riefenstahl made a documentary based on the 1934 Rally: ‘Triumph of the Will’

Speeches, parades and celebrations of National Socialism

hitler youth league of german maidens
Hitler Youth & League of German Maidens

Hitler Youth

League of German Maidens

joseph goebbels propaganda
Joseph Goebbels & Propaganda
  • Minister for Propaganda & Popular Enlightenment
  • Controlled the press, cinema and all forms of media
  • Launched the Nazi newspaper ‘Der Angriff’
  • Nazi Germany’s secret police
  • Founded by Hermann Goering (1933)
  • Under Himmler’s (SS) control from 1934 onwards.
ss schutzstaffel
SS - Schutzstaffel
  • Heinrich Himmler (leader of SS 1929 – 1945)
  • Paramilitary organisation who absorbed the police and Gestapo under its control. The most feared & powerful organisation in the Third Reich.
  • Membership was based solely on ability, obedience & physical & mental excellence.
  • Swore an oath to Hitler (daggers)
  • Responsible for many of the crimes against humanity (Jews) – SS Einsatzgruppen (death squads)

The practise whereby European leaders (& the League of Nations) gave in to Hitler’s demands in the hope that he would eventually stop being aggressive militarily

Reasons:Nobody in Europe wanted a repeat of WWI (deaths)

Britain could not afford another war in Europe

Hitler meets Chamberlain at the Munich Conference (1938)

munich conference 1938 peace in our times
Munich Conference (1938)“Peace in Our Times”
  • The Munich Conference of 1938 was convened to attempt to prevent war in Europe.
  • Four European leaders attended: Chamberlain (UK), Daladier (France), Hitler (Germany) & Mussolini (Italy). No Czech representative was invited.
  • At this conference, it was decided to allow Germany to take control of the Sudetenland, where 3 million German speakers lived inside the border of Czechoslovakia
  • Chamberlain returned to Britain, declaring that they had secured “peace in our times”
anschluss 1938
Anschluss (1938)
  • Union of Germany & Austria
hitler s foreign policy aims
Hitler’s Foreign Policy Aims
  • Destruction of The Treaty of Versailles:
  • Grossdeutschland:A unified country of all German-speaking people in Europe
  • Anschluss:Union of Germany & Austria
  • Lebensraum: ‘living space in the East’ (whereby Germany would forcibly take land from Slavic & Russian people to increase the living space of Germany
r easons why league of nations failed to prevent war in 1939
Reasons why League of Nations failed to prevent war in 1939
  • The League of Nations had no standing army to enforce its decisions
  • The League failed to stand up to aggression by its members (Italy invading Abyssinia)
  • The USA never joined the League of Nations
phase ii 1939 1945 world war ii

Manhattan Project

Phase II: 1939 – 1945World War II


Final Solution




Battle of Britain

Operation Overlord

Operation Eagle

Operation Sealion

Atlantic Wall

Pearl Harbour



Battle of the Bulge

Vichy France

Desert Fox

Allies v. Axis

Operation Dynamo

Operation Barbarossa




Maginot Line

junkers ju 87 stuka
Junkers Ju 87 ‘Stuka’

Highly-effective dive bomber used in ‘Blitzkrieg’ warfare, attacking defensive positions and tanks

maginot line
Maginot Line
  • French defensive barrier located along the boprder with Germany.
  • Constructed after World War One.
evacuation of dunkirk operation dynamo
Evacuation of Dunkirk‘Operation Dynamo’

300,000 British & French troops rescued by over 800 ships and pleasure craft

operation sealion
Operation Sealion
  • Hitler’s plan to invade Britain
battle of britain
Battle of Britain

Spitfire Mk IV

Messerschmitt Bf109


invasion of ussr operation barbarossa june october 1941
Invasion of USSR - Operation Barbarossa (June – October 1941)

Hitler invades Russia with over 3 million men & 4,000 tanks, supported by the Luftwaffe

3 Army groups invade:Army Group North: LeningradArmy Group Centre: MoscowArmy Group South: Stalingrad

Hitler’s target was the oil-rich region of the Caucasus

battle of the bulge 1944
Battle of the Bulge (1944)
  • Last German counter-offensive in the west attempting to stop the Allied advance into Germany (1944)
the manhattan project
The Manhattan Project
  • The research & development of the atomic bomb in USA
  • Led by Dr. Oppenheimer
the holocaust
The Holocaust

By the end of WWII, after the concentration & extermination camps were liberated throughout occupied Europe, it was estimated that over 6 million Jews had been murdered as part of‘The Final Solution’; the plan to eradicate all Jews from Europe between 1942 & 1945.

phase iii 1945 1990 the cold war


Phase III: 1945 – 1990The Cold War

Operation Vittles

Sputnik I

Hydrogen Bomb

Korean War


Truman Doctrine

Satellite States

Berlin Wall

Berlin Blockade

Zones of Occupation

Iron Curtain

Fidel Castro


Cuban Missile Crisis

Bay of Pigs

Marshall Plan

John F. Kennedy

Warsaw Pact


38th Parallel

Yuri Gagarin

Nikita Khruschev

Tsar Bomba

Space Race

division of europe post 1945
Division of Europe post-1945

The ‘Iron Curtain’

berlin blockade
Berlin Blockade

Operation ‘Vittles’

  • When Stalin closed all road and rail access to West Berlin in response tot he unification of West Germany, the Western Allies responded with an enormous airlift – Operation Vittles – to supply West Berlin.
  • The operation lasted from 1948 to 1949, with a total of flights, before Stalin relented and re-opened the roads and rail access to West Berlin from West Germany
64 slides
64 slides
  • 14 left to do
  • 41 completed