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20 th Century European History - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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20 th Century European History. Short & Long Questions. 20 th Century International Relations. Phase I 1919 – 1939 The Uneasy Peace (SLIDES 3-38) Treaty of Versailles Weimar Republic Mussolini’s Italy Wall Street Crash Great Depression Rise of Extremism League of Nations Nazi Germany

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20 th Century European History

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    1. 20th Century European History Short & Long Questions - Billy McSweeney (c) 2014

    2. 20th Century International Relations Phase I1919 – 1939 The Uneasy Peace(SLIDES 3-38) • Treaty of Versailles • Weimar Republic • Mussolini’s Italy • Wall Street Crash • Great Depression • Rise of Extremism • League of Nations • Nazi Germany • Appeasement • Munich Conference Phase III1945 – 1990 The Cold War(Slides 70-94) • Divided Germany • Europe Divided • NATO & Warsaw Pact • SuperPowers • Operation Vittles: Berlin Blockade • The Truman Doctrine • The Korean War • Sputnik I • Yuri Gagarin • NASA • Cuban Missile Crisis • The Vietnam War • SALT Phase II1939 – 1945 World War II(Slides 39-69) • Invasion of Poland • Blitzkrieg • The Phoney War • Hitler’s Turns West • The Maginot Line • Fall of France • Vichy France • Operation Dynamo • Operation Eagle (Battle of Britain) • Operation Sealion • Operation Barbarossa • Battle of Stalingrad • Pearl Harbour • Final Solution • Operation Overlord: D-Day • The Battle of the Bulge • The Manhattan Project • Fall of Berlin • The Holocaust • Hiroshima & Nagasaki - Billy McSweeney (c) 2014

    3. Rearmament Phase I: 1919 – 1939The Uneasy Peace Anschluss Hyperinflation Night of the Long Knives Squadristi War Guilt Clause Der Fuhrer Kristallnacht Reparations Brownshirts (SA) Acerbo Law Nuremberg Laws Wall Street Crash Lebensraum Herrenvolk Appeasement Il Duce March on Rome Propaganda Enabling Law OVRA Great Depression Fourteen Points Battle for Grain Weimar Republic - Billy McSweeney (c) 2014

    4. Treaty of Versailles (1919) Germany: • Lost Alsace-Lorraine to France & City of Danzig was administered by League of Nations. Also lost Posen to Poland (and all its overseas colonies) • Had to reparations of 6.6 billion marks to France, Belgium & Britain • Army reduced to 100,000 men • U-boats scrapped • Surface navy reduced Article 231: ‘War Guilt Clause’Whereby Germany accepted complete responsibility for the war and the damage it caused - Billy McSweeney (c) 2014

    5. War Guilt Clause (1919) Article 231: ‘War Guilt Clause’Whereby Germany accepted complete responsibility for the war and the damage it caused This would become a item of contention & controversy in Germany from 1920 on, providing Hitler & the Nazis with a reason to call the Weimar Republic a “nation founded in defeat” and a means to attract German Nationalists to their extreme ideology.  ’Dolchstoßlegende’: ‘Stab in the back’ myth (Nazi accusation towards German politicians of 1918) - Billy McSweeney (c) 2014

    6. 4 New Countries Created after World War I • Austria • Hungary • Yugoslavia • Czechoslovakia Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points:One of President Wilson’s 14 Points was that of ‘self-determination of small nations’. This helped to break up old empires and create many new small nations throughout Europe. - Billy McSweeney (c) 2014

    7. March on Rome (22nd – 29th October1922) • The Italian National Fascist Party marched on Rome, demanding to be made the new government of Italy • The Blackshirts (‘Squadristi’) led the march on Rome • 30,000 men took part in the march • The Italian King, fearing a civil war, invited Mussolini and his party to form a new government for Italy • Contrary to popular belief, Mussolini did not take part in the march. Staged photos were later taken - Billy McSweeney (c) 2014

    8. The Blackshirts‘Squadristi’ • Italian Fascist Militia • Strongly pro-nationalist • Supported Mussolini & the Italian Fascist Party • Intimidated political opponents • Attacked Communist parties & groups - Billy McSweeney (c) 2014

    9. Acerbo Law (1923) A law passed in Italy in 1923 whereby the political party who won the most seats would automatically get 2/3 of the seats in the Italian Parliament. Ostensibly introduced to create strong, stable governments, the law was in fact introduced to give Mussolini and the Italian Fascists dominance over the parliament. - Billy McSweeney (c) 2014

    10. Reasons Why Mussolini’s Party Gained Support after 1919 • Many Italians felt that they should have received more land in the Paris Peace Settlement and resented the little they received. • Mussolini promised to crush communism and take on the mafia gangs • Italy was heavily in debt after the First World War and Mussolini promised to bring strong, stable government to Italy • Effective use of propaganda - Billy McSweeney (c) 2014

    11. OVRAOrganization for Vigilance and Repression of Anti-Fascism • Italian Secret Police in Mussolini’s Italy • Founded in 1927 • Leader: Arturo Bocchini • Arrest, detain & torture opponents of fascism in Italy - Billy McSweeney (c) 2014

    12. ‘Battle for Grain’ • Poor marshland was drained & reclaimed for wheat production. Government gave grants to farmers to invest in machinery & fertiliser. • Tariffs placed on imported bread • Mussolini wanted to reduce Italy’s balance of trade deficit (due to imports). He wanted to make Italy as self-sufficient as possible • Italy was almost entirely self-sufficient in wheat production by 1940 Mussolini ‘working’ in the fields, bringing in the harvest (Propaganda) - Billy McSweeney (c) 2014

    13. Weimar Germany 1919 - 1933 • Founded in the aftermath of the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II. • City of Weimar was the capital of the new republic. • Gustav Streseman was the Prime Minister of Weimar in 1923 and Foreign Minister from 1924 – 1929. • The Young Plan & Dawes Plan (American loans) helped to alleviate the financial burden on Weimar, particularly reparations & employment. - Billy McSweeney (c) 2014

    14. Threats to the Weimar Republic (1919 – 1933) • Both Communist (KPD) and Fascist (NSDAP) parties threatened the stability of Weimar Germany. • Associated with defeat of World War One, many Germans disliked the Weimar Republic as being artificial and weak. • Weimar suffered from depression & hyperinflation from 1920 – 1923 due to the enormous strain on its economy from payment of the war reparations. • Weimar Republic joined the League of Nations in 1925 with the signing of the Locarno Pact, which declared that Germany would respect the western borders set out in the Treaty of Versailles. - Billy McSweeney (c) 2014

    15. Extremist Uprisings in Weimar Republic Communist Nationalist & Fascist Kapp Putsch - nationalist uprising (1920) Beer Hall Putsch – Fascist (1923) • Spartacist Uprising (1919) - Billy McSweeney (c) 2014

    16. 2 Reasons for Growth of Fascism in Europe after World War One Fear of Communism Unstable Economies & High Unemployment Many European countries suffered greatly from the Wall Street Crash and following Depression throughout Europe. In Germany, there were over 6 million workers unemployed by the time Hitler & the Nazis took power in 1933, promising to eradicate unemployment • Most western countries were afraid of communism spreading to their countries after the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 in Russia. • Because of this, many people supported fascist parties as they were seen to be strongly anti-communist - Billy McSweeney (c) 2014

    17. Wall Street Crash (1929) • 4th October – 29th October 1929 • Investors (up to 25,000,000) had invested steadily in a growing American Stock Exchange during the 1920s. • However, when rates began to drop, people rushed to sell their shares and caused the Stock Exchange to collapse • On 29th October – ‘Black Tuesday’ the American Stock Exchange lost 30 Billion Dollars worth of shares through hurried sales. The event plunged USA into the ‘Great Depression’, which also affected all of Western Europe - Billy McSweeney (c) 2014

    18. Lateran Treaty (1929) The Treaty recognised: • Catholic religion as the official state religion, with the Church being granted special authority over education & marriage laws • Also, the treaty meant that Italy recognised the Vatican as an independent city-state - Billy McSweeney (c) 2014

    19. Reasons Why Hitler & Nazis Came to Power in 1933 Resentment at the Treaty of Versailles Failure of democratic governments to deal with economic crisis following the Wall Street Crash Fear of communist groups staging a revolution & taking power in Germany - Billy McSweeney (c) 2014

    20. The Brownshirts(SA)Germany • Ernst Rohm (leader) • Militia of ex German soldiers & officers (WW1) that supported Nazi party demonstrations & speeches • Strongly pro-nationalist & anti-communist • Disrupted rival party gatherings and clashed with communist groups - Billy McSweeney (c) 2014

    21. Enabling Act (1933) • Introduced in 1933 after the Reichstag Fire, this law granted Hitler the right to ‘rule by decree’ • This meant that Hitler could make decisions and enact policies without consulting the German Parliament, in times of emergency • In effect, it made him a dictator as soon after this, all other political parties were banned in Germany, creating a totalitarian state. - Billy McSweeney (c) 2014

    22. Night of the Long Knives ( June 30th – July 2nd1934) • Ernst Rohm & hundreds of leading members of the Brownshirts (SA) assassinated by Nazis. • The SA leadership was targeted by Hitler as they refused to become part of the German Army (Wehrmacht) • Hitler knew he needed the support of the German High Command, who refused to allow a ‘second’ private army operate in Germany. - Billy McSweeney (c) 2014

    23. Nuremberg Laws (1935) Under these laws, Jews ........ • Were forbidden from marrying Germans (non-Jews) • Lost their citizenship of Germany (became ‘state subjects’) • Could not hold public office or own property • Forced to wear the Star of David - Billy McSweeney (c) 2014

    24. Nuremberg Rallies1927 - 1939 Nazi Party annual parades of the Nazi Party and its followers Organised by Albert Speer Leni Riefenstahl made a documentary based on the 1934 Rally: ‘Triumph of the Will’ Speeches, parades and celebrations of National Socialism - Billy McSweeney (c) 2014

    25. Hitler Youth &League of German Maidens Hitler Youth League of German Maidens Indoctrinate young German girls to become ‘Wife, mother, homemaker’ Indoctrinate young German boys in military exercises & Nazi ideologyHitlerjugend: 14 – 18 years old Deutsches Jungvolk: 10 – 14(essentially a youths’ version of the original SA) - Billy McSweeney (c) 2014

    26. Joseph Goebbels: Propaganda • Minister for Propaganda & Popular Enlightenment (Reich Propaganda Ministry) • Strictly controlled the press, cinema and all forms of media. Banned books that were contrary to Nazi ideology. • Promoted & disseminated anti-Semitic material ‘The Eternal Jew’ (1940) • Spoke at the Nuremberg Rallies, inciting greater military effort & support from all Germans and demanded absolute loyalty to Hitler. • Launched the Nazi newspaper ‘Das Reich’ (1940) "The essence of propaganda consists in winning people over to an idea so sincerely, so vitally, that in the end they succumb to it utterly and can never escape from it." Goebbels - Billy McSweeney (c) 2014

    27. Gestapo • Nazi Germany’s secret police • Founded by Hermann Goering (1933) • Under Himmler’s (SS) control from 1934 onwards. - Billy McSweeney (c) 2014

    28. SS - Schutzstaffel • Heinrich Himmler (leader of SS 1929 – 1945) • Paramilitary organisation who absorbed the police and Gestapo under its control. The most feared & powerful organisation in the Third Reich. • Membership was based solely on ability, obedience & physical & mental excellence. • Swore an oath to Hitler (daggers) • Responsible for many of the crimes against humanity (Jews) – SS Einsatzgruppen (death squads) - Billy McSweeney (c) 2014

    29. Appeasement The practise whereby European leaders (& the League of Nations) gave in to Hitler’s demands in the hope that he would eventually stop being aggressive militarily Reasons:Nobody in Europe wanted a repeat of WWI (deaths) Britain could not afford another war in Europe Hitler meets Chamberlain at the Munich Conference (1938) - Billy McSweeney (c) 2014

    30. Munich Conference (1938)“Peace in Our Times” • The Munich Conference of 1938 was convened to attempt to prevent war in Europe. • Four European leaders attended: Chamberlain (UK), Daladier (France), Hitler (Germany) & Mussolini (Italy). No Czech representative was invited. • At this conference, it was decided to allow Germany to take control of the Sudetenland, where 3 million German speakers lived inside the border of Czechoslovakia • Chamberlain returned to Britain, declaring that they had secured “peace in our times” - Billy McSweeney (c) 2014

    31. ‘Anschluss’(12th March1938) • Austrian Nazi Party pushed for unification with Germany between 1934 & 1938. Hitler demanded that the Austrian Chancellor (Von Schussnigg) put Austrian Nazis in his government. • Von Schuschnigg held a referendum on Austria’s independence in 1938, hoping to preserve Austria’s independence. He was defeated & resigned. • Seyss-Inquart (a leading Austrian Nazi) became the Chancellor of Austria in March 1938. He then invited Hitler to send the German Army into Austria to “restore” order. The Anschluss took place on 12th March 1938. Anschluss:Union of Germany & Austria - Billy McSweeney (c) 2014

    32. Hitler’s Foreign Policy Aims • Destruction of The Treaty of Versailles: • Grossdeutschland:A unified country of all German-speaking people in Europe • Anschluss:Union of Germany & Austria • Lebensraum: ‘living space in the East’ (whereby Germany would forcibly take land from Slavic & Russian people to increase the living space of Germany) - Billy McSweeney (c) 2014

    33. Pact of Steel (1939) ‘Pact of Friendship and Alliance between Germany and Italy’ Italy & Germany were to deepen their “friendship & communication”, while undertaking to combine their foreign policies and military action. It was also a common defense policy. - Billy McSweeney (c) 2014

    34. Nazi-Soviet 10-Year Non-Aggression Pact (1939) - Billy McSweeney (c) 2014

    35. Nazi-Soviet 10-Year Non- Aggression Pact (1939) • Also known as the ‘Molotov-Ribbentrop’ Pact • It laid the foundations of a ten-year declaration of non-aggression. • Neither side truly believed in this, but it did buy time for Stalin to prepare for the eventual German attack (1941) • The Pact also contained secret clauses to divide Poland between the two countries - Billy McSweeney (c) 2014

    36. Reasons why League of Nations failed to prevent war in 1939 • The League of Nations had no standing army to enforce its decisions • The League failed to stand up to aggression by its members (Italy invading Abyssinia, 1935) • The USA never joined the League of Nations - Billy McSweeney (c) 2014

    37. League of Nations - Billy McSweeney (c) 2014

    38. Timeline: 1919-1939 Key Events Key Periods Specific 1914 - 1918: First World War 1919 - 1933: Weimar Republic 1922 – 1944: Mussolini’s Italy 1933 – 1945: Nazi Germany General 1930s: Appeasement 1920s – 1930s: Failure of League of Nations • 1919: Treaty of Versailles • 1922: March on Rome (Italy) • 1923: Acerbo Law (Italy) • 1923: Beer Hall Putsch (Ger.) • 1929: Lateran Treaty (Italy) • 1929: Wall Street Crash (USA) • 1933: Hitler comes to Power (Ger.) • 1933: Enabling Law (Ger.) • 1934: Night of the Long Knives (Ger.) • 1935: Nuremberg Laws (Ger.) • 1936: Berlin Olympic Games (Ger.) • 1938: Kristallnacht (Ger.) • 1938: Munich Conference • 1938: Anschluss (Ger. & Aus.) • 1939: Pact of Steel • 1939: Nazi-Soviet Pact - Billy McSweeney (c) 2014

    39. Manhattan Project Phase II: 1939 – 1945World War II Luftwaffe Final Solution RAF Blitzkrieg Roosevelt Battle of Britain Operation Overlord Operation Eagle Operation Sealion Atlantic Wall Pearl Harbour Holocaust U-Boats Battle of the Bulge Vichy France Desert Fox Allies v. Axis Operation Dynamo Operation Barbarossa Blitz Stalin Churchill Maginot Line - Billy McSweeney (c) 2014

    40. - Billy McSweeney (c) 2014

    41. WWII Alliances Allies Axis Nazi Germany Fascist Italy Imperial Japan • Britain • France • USA (1941) • USSR (1941) • Italy (1944) - Billy McSweeney (c) 2014

    42. Blitzkrieg (‘lightning war’) Devastating & effective German offensive strategy involving: Aerial Bombardment of defenses, depots & airfields (Stuka dive-bombers) Tanks & Infantry followed up to ‘mop up’ remaining defenses. - Billy McSweeney (c) 2014

    43. German Armies Invade Western Poland (1939) - Billy McSweeney (c) 2014

    44. Junkers Ju 87 ‘Stuka’ Highly-effective dive bomber used in ‘Blitzkrieg’ warfare, attacking defensive positions and tanks - Billy McSweeney (c) 2014

    45. The Maginot Line • French defensive barrier located along the border with Germany, constructed after World War One. • Concrete bunkers, artillery guns and even an underground railway system connecting bunkers made it a formidable defensive barrier • WEAKNESS: The Maginot Line extended along the border with Germany, but with only a much weaker defensive system along the border with Belgium - Billy McSweeney (c) 2014

    46. Evacuation of DunkirkOperation Dynamo 300,000 British & French troops rescued by over 800 ships and pleasure craft - Billy McSweeney (c) 2014

    47. Third Reich Military Conquests(1939 – 1940) • Poland (September 1939) • Norway (April 1940) • Denmark (April 1940) • Netherlands (May 1940) • Belgium (May 1940) • Luxembourg (May 1940) • France (June 1940) - Billy McSweeney (c) 2014

    48. Fall of France(June 1940) - Billy McSweeney (c) 2014

    49. Vichy France(1940 – 1944) Governed by Marcel Petain - Billy McSweeney (c) 2014

    50. Operation Sealion Hitler’s plan to invade Britain in 1940-1941 • The plan depended entirely on first gaining air superiority over Britain – leading to Operation Eagle (Battle of Britain) • The Luftwaffe failed to destroy the RAF in the Battle of Britain and Hitler decided to indefinitely postpone Operation Sealion on 17th September 1940 - Billy McSweeney (c) 2014