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Cellular Respiration. Notes. Transfer of Energy. Use of oxygen to breakdown sugar into carbon dioxide and water Formula: Glucose + O 2  CO 2 + H 2 O + Energy (ATP). Mitochondria. Cristae inner membrane folds Matrix fluid surrounding cristae which contain enzymes

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transfer of energy
Transfer of Energy
  • Use of oxygen to breakdown sugar into carbon dioxide and water
  • Formula:

Glucose + O2CO2 + H2O + Energy (ATP)

mitochondria
Mitochondria
  • Cristae
    • inner membrane folds
  • Matrix
    • fluid surrounding cristae which contain enzymes
      • used to transfer chemical energy from sugar to ATP
two major stages of respiration
Two Major Stages of Respiration

Aerobic Respiration

Anaerobic Respiration

  • Takes place in the presence of OXYGEN
  • Kreb’s Cycle
  • Electron Transport System (Chain)
  • Occurs when there is NO OXYGEN
  • Glycolysis
  • Fermentation
    • Alcohol
    • Lactic Acid
glycolysis
Glycolysis
  • Takes place in cytoplasm
  • “Splitting of sugar”
    • Forms pyruvic acid
    • Hydrogen is released and picked up by NAD+ to form NADH (energy “taxi”)
    • Releases 2 ATP
aerobic respiration
Aerobic Respiration
  • In the matrix of mitochondria
  • Pyruvic acid is converted to acetic acid (acetyl CoA)
    • Releases CO2 (waste)
        • NAD+ forms NADH
kreb s cycle
Kreb’s Cycle
  • Acetyl CoA broken down completely
    • NAD+ forms NADH
    • FAD forms FADH2 (another “taxi”)
    • 2 ATP
    • CO2 given off
electron transport system
Electron Transport System
  • NADH/FADH2 transports H to cristae of mitochondria
  • H electrons pass through series of electron acceptors (chain)
    • Forms 32 ATP
      • ADP + P  ATP
    • Oxygen at the end of chain combines with H to form H2O
energy totals
Energy Totals
  • Glycolysis = 2
  • Krebs Cycle = 2
  • ETS = 32

TOTAL = 36 ATP per sugar molecule

anaerobic respiration
Anaerobic Respiration

Alcohol Fermentation

Lactic Acid Fermentation

  • Pyruvate is converted to Ethyl Alcohol and CO2
    • NADH releases H (back to NAD+)
    • NO ATP is produced
  • Pyruvate is converted to lactic acid
    • NADH releases H (back to NAD+)
    • NO ATP is produced
energy totals1
Energy Totals
  • Glycolysis = 2

Total = 2 ATP per molecule of glucose