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U.S. History Chapter 23. Tension in the West. Not just a fight about land. Fight was about two different cultures and ways of seeing the world. Settlers: owning plot of land meant freedom Native Americans : owning a plot of land was like being tied down or in jail

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Tension in the West


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    1. U.S. HistoryChapter 23 Tension in the West

    2. Not just a fight about land. Fight was about two different cultures and ways of seeing the world. Settlers: owning plot of land meant freedom Native Americans: owning a plot of land was like being tied down or in jail verses

    3. Nez Perce’ • “Pierced nose” • Named by French • Expert horsemen and breeders (Appaloosa • Oregon, Washington, Idaho • After Civil War- Nez Perce’ way of life changed forever

    4. Always non violent Until….. 1860’s miners and influx of lots of settlers • Some Nez Perce’ bands sign treaty and move to Lapwai Reservation in Idaho • Chief Joseph’s band (in the Wallowa Valley in eastern Oregon) refuses to sign treaty • Aided Lewis and Clark • Chief Joseph’s tribe move under threat of war

    5. Let the fighting begin First: A few angry N.A.s leave camp and kill several white settlers Next: Army responds and ignore the N.A.’s white flag Finally: In the end 34 soldiers were dead Result: First time ever any violence from the Nez Perce’

    6. Off to Canada • 3 months, Nez Perce’ wander over 1,000 miles, being chased by the Army all the way. 40 miles from Canadian border, they were forced to surrender. • Stuck in Oklahoma • Many sick and dying • Tried to negotiate a deal so they could be reunited with bands in Lapwai, some got to go others sent to Washington state. • Chief Joseph dies of a broken heart once in Washington

    7. New interest in the west Two laws: Homestead Act Pacific Railroad Act 160 acres free if land Transcontinental RR Is cleared and stay (connect Union Pacific to Central on land for five years Pacific) Free land for every mile of tracks Result: in 40 years, 6 million came for the land, 170,000 miles of tract laid

    8. The race is on !( who will get the most land, loans, and profit?) Goal: Two RR line meet somewhere between the starting part of each Problem- It was HARD work • Surveyors study land and plan route • Graders follow and prepare the land (using picks and shovels to get through hills and mountains) • Tracklayers (one track weighing 700 lbs.) • Spikers(ten spikes per rail, three hammer blows per spike)

    9. Union Pacific heads west • Slow start • Civil War General leads construction • 1000 workers • Irish • Ex-soldiers, Mexicans, freed slaves • 7miles of tract each day • Tent cities • Buffalo slaughtered makes N.A. mad • Call in 5,000 troops to protect crew Central Pacific heads east • Different problems • Silver discovers at same time, many crew members left tracks • Chinese workers hired to replace missing crew • About 12,000 in all • 10 miles of track each day

    10. May 10, 1869 At last, they meet! 1800 miles of track “Golden Spike” New RR allowed for: new settlers to go west, the construction of new towns and cities, mail and supply delivery No one acknowledges Chinese contribution!

    11. Who came next?The Miners! Gold 1848 Silver 1874 California, Oregon. Washington Nevada, Montana, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico Discovery of gold/silver Mining camps (boomtowns) Lawlessness Vigilantes Ghost towns Si

    12. Native Americans run off their land Land damaged Opened West’s mountains and deserts Mining Changes the West

    13. Ranchers and Cowboys Lots of cattle in Texas Cattle needed in Eastern Cattle cost $3 a head Cattle sold $50 a head

    14. Bye Bye Buffalo Buffalo hunters follow the railroad, killing all the way. Native Americans needed buffalo in order to survive. Congress passes no kill bill Pres. Grant will not sign By 1880, almost all buffalo dead forcing Native Americans onto reservations in order not to starve

    15. Thank goodness for the railroad! “Long drive” from Texas to Kansas From Kansas cattle shipped to NE on Railroads. Saved time and money

    16. A cowboy’s life on the trail Poor pay Boring Long hours Fear Dangerous Nasty living conditions

    17. Welcome to Dodge City “The wicked little city” Home of Boot Hill

    18. The “Long Drive” ends1887 Cattle industry collapsed -“Great Die-up”- -Fenced in ranches- -Cowboys become ranch hands - -Wild cow towns become civilized ranching centers-

    19. Who were the Homesteaders? Followed rancher to “Great American Desert” Normally dry land enjoys an unusual wet phase, encouraged more homesteaders -500,000 by 1900 -Promise of cheap or free land -Former slaves -European immigrants -Easterners looking for a new starts

    20. Boy, did they get scammed! Huge challenges: • Unreliable rain • Hot • Locusts large grasshoppers Solutions: • Windmills to get water from deep underground • Sod houses • Winter Wheat

    21. Black Hills of the Dakota Territory (Sacred land to Sioux) Recognized by U.S.A. government Sioux land George Custer looking for place to build a fort ( he was really looking for gold) Small wars erupt in 1860’s By 1870’s, who gets what is settled…. Not so fairly!

    22. Bad time for the Natives Agreement:Native American settle on reservations and will get food, farm tools, and schools. U.S. get their land How did that work out for the Natives???? It didn’t Food never came or was spoiled Result: Hungry Natives attach settlers Soldiers kill Natives

    23. Custer realizes that there is gold in the Black Hills. He wants the gold. One problem…… the land belongs to the Sioux What happens- Fights for the land break out between the Army and the Sioux. Enter: the GOVERNMENT, they will fix it

    24. NOT Government invites Native Americans to move out of the Black Hill so miners can get gold. Battle of Little Big Horn or Custer’s Last Stand Custer was ordered to locate Sioux and Cheyenne, but to do nothing else. Custer attaches anyway. In a few short minutes all of Custer’s 260 men where dead….so was he. Native Americans were soon forced out of their homeland, no more Indian battles