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Internal Tension in Lebanon before the war . Lebanese support for the Palestinians among Muslims alienated by the system; e.g. lack of basic social services Sulayman Frangieh (1970-76) abandoned Shihabist policies  return to “nepotism and corruption” System favored the Christians

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Lebanese support for the Palestinians among Muslims alienated by the system; e.g. lack of basic social services

  • SulaymanFrangieh (1970-76) abandoned Shihabist policies  return to “nepotism and corruption”
  • System favored the Christians
    • 6/5 ratio
    • Shia community severely underrepresented
    • Muslims + Palestinians opposed to status quo – backed by KamalJumblatt
    • Gemayel’s Phalange defended status quo
1 st phase of the war
1st phase of the war
  • Phalangists and PLO armed
  • Outbreak of fighting between Phalangists and PLO; April  June
  • Christians (Phalangists) vs. Muslims (Lebanese National Movement – Jumblatt); August 
the lebanese miracle
The Lebanese Miracle
  • Miracle for the few…
  • Shihabism opening up of new areas  business opportunities
  • Oil boom  trading opportunities in the Arab countries
  • Agricultural businessmen; monopolies on domestic sale, import and export of produce
  • Decline of primary sector, impoverishment of farmers -> urban poor
traboulsi
Traboulsi
  • Lebanon a ‘place’ for recycling petrodollars toward Western networks (“logic of Western recuperation of petrodollars”)
  • Commercial/financial oligarchy dominated the economy
    • Industry; multinationals gained control over existing industries and opened processing industries (for Arab market)

-> foreign capital competed with local industry

-> external dependency

-> import increased more than export

-> double concentration (volume and share)

cont traboulsi
Cont. Traboulsi
  • Agriculture
    • Concentration of control;
      • 25 brokers controlled 2/3 of the apple market
      • 20 brokers controlled 81% of market for citrus fruits
      • 2 firms controlled imports of insecticides and fertilisers
      • Agribusiness monopolies; beetroot/sugar and tobacco (both importers and controllers of local production!)
    • Importers taken over 85% of local market (only 15% of food consumption was locally produced)
    • Agricultural production driven to produce for external markets (fruits and poultry mainly)
    • End of 1950s: 50% of Lebanese lived off of agriculture

By 1975: only 20% left in the sector

 100.000 active farmers lost in less than 20 years

traboulsi social effects
Traboulsi; Social Effects
  • Emigration; hides high unemployment rates
  • Sharp increase in remittances (% of GNP)
  • High cost of living:
    • Doubled between 1967 and 1975
    • Price of imported goods rose by 10-15% in 1972-73
    • Property speculation -> raised land prices + imposed construction of luxury apartment buildings (eve of war: 40-50.000 empty luxury apts. in Beirut)
poverty belt
Poverty belt
  • 500.000 poor inhabitants in Beirut
    • Most rural immigrants
      • Israeli raids in the south
      • Insufficient livelihood from agriculture due to lack of irrigation and transportation
sects and economy traboulsi
Sects and economy (Traboulsi)
  • Ratios of Christian to Muslim entrepreneurs in
    • Industry: 10:2
    • Finance: 11:2
    • Services: 16:2

(late 1950s)

1973:

    • Commercial firms: 75.5% Christians
    • Industrial firms: 67.5% Christians
    • Banking: 71% Christians
    • Industrial working class: 75 % Muslim
inequalities in lebanon
Inequalities in Lebanon
  • Picard
    • 4% tied up 33% of personal income, 50% partook only 18% (1958)
    • Average income in southern Lebanon 1/5 of Beirut’s
  • Traboulsi: (late 60s/early 70s)
    • 79% of Lebanese received less than minimum income (estimated by Bishop Haddad)
    • Average income in Beirut $ 803, in the south $ 151
    • Beirut & Mount Lebanon: 64% of private elementary schools, 73% of secondary schools, 100% universities
    • 65% of medical doctors were in Beirut (27% of pop.), only 3% in the Bekaa (13 % of pop.)
political protest intellectual unrest
Political protest, intellectual unrest
  • 1967 catalyst for protest and criticism in Arab world
  • Beirut ideal setting; educational institutions, liberal atmosphere and legislation
  • 1968 + Arab nationalism
  • Lebanon: quest for secularism – seen as key to modernization, democratization and civil rights
  • Political cleavages based on:
    • Communitarian question
    • Attitude toward the Palestinian resistance
    • Economic policy
three main groups
Three main groups
  • Reformists
    • Revising, but not abandonment of communitarianism
    • Reform of leadership practices within communities
  • Revolutionaries
    • The Lebanese National Movement
  • Conservatives (preserve)
    • Almost exclusively Christian, mainly Maronites