Entrance Question • Explain the relationship between cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems?
Answer: • The body is organized into cells, tissues, organs, organs systems. Cells that have similar functions make up tissue; two or more types of tissue work together to form an organ; organs work together to form a system.
Objective 3.2 • Relate major tissues and organs of the skeletal system to their functions.
Objectives • Functions • Name 3 of the 4 functions of the skeletal system. • Name 1 mineral that is stored by the bones. • Identify where blood cells are made. • Structures • Identify which division of the skeleton is for protection and which is for movement. • Name 1 place cartilage is located and explain what it does. • Explain the difference between a ligament and a tendon. • If you break a bone how does it heal? What is the process called? • Label 8 bones on the skeletal system diagram.
Let’s ask the experts • What is the skeletal system? • http://www.brainpop.com/health/skeletalsystem/skeleton/
Functions of the Skeletal System: 1. Movement • Strong framework on which muscles can act 2. Supports & protects organs 3. Regulates and stores body minerals and fats • calcium, phosphorus 4. Produces red and white blood cells in bone marrow
Bone • One of the hard parts forming the skeleton in vertebrate animals.
Bones are composed of tissue that may take one of two form. Most bones contain both types. • Compact- dense bone • Spongy- cancellous bone
Compact bone- is dense , hard, and forms the protective exterior portion of all bones. • Spongy bone- is inside the compact bone and is very porous (full of tiny holes) occurs in most bones.
Structure of bones Red marrow Yellow marrow
Bone tissue • The bone tissue is composed of several types of bone cells embedded in a web of inorganic salts (mostly calcium and phosphorus) to give the bone strength and collagenous fibers and ground substance to give the bone flexibility.
Bone marrow-thesoft reddish substance inside the center of many bones that is involved in the production of blood cells and storage of fat.
Types of bone marrow • Yellow marrow- yellow fatty tissue that fills the central cavities of long and stores fat in bones. In children, more red marrow fills the center of long bones. • Red marrow- is the site of red and white blood cell production.It is found inside of long bones. This red marrow is replaced with yellow marrow as children become adults.
Food for thought • Why do children have more red marrow in the center of their bones than adults?
adult skeleton- • 206 bones • Newborn have more cartilage • Bones start as cartilage • Human babies contains more bones which begin to fuse together as the child grows.
No bones about it! • The bones of the body fall into four general categories: • Long bones • Short bones • Flat bones • Irregular bones
Four types of bones • Long bones – extremities • Short bones – cube-shaped, wrist & ankle • Flat bones – skull, sternum, scapula, ribs • Irregular bones – vertebrae, pelvis
Long Bones • Are longer than they are wide • Work as levers • Upper and lower extremities (examples- humerus, tibia, femur, ulna, metacarpals, etc.)
Short Bones • minimal or no shaft • Often square or cube shaped and found in the wrist and ankles.
Flat Bone • Skull • Two sheets of compact bone • Spongy bone • They have broad surfaces for protection of organs and attachment of muscles.
Irregular bones • Bones of the face and vertebrae • They have varied shapes, sizes and surface features. • All other bones that do not fall into the previous categories.
(aka cranium) scapula carpals metacarpals phalanges tarsals metatarsals phalanges
Cartilage • Lines the surface of joints so they move smoothly • Cushions vertebrae • Supports nose and ears
Movement • Ligaments • Bone to bone at a joint • Prevents excessive movement • Tendons • Muscle to muscle • Muscle to bone Play the air piano!!…what you see in your hands are your tendons working
Care 99% of body calcium is in your bones!!! • Nutrition: minerals • Calcium builds strong bones • Found in dairy products • During teen years, body builds most of its bone mass • Phosphorus • Combines with calcium • Milk, peas, beans, liver, cottage cheese, broccoli • Exercise • Weight-bearing exercises increase bone mass • Promotes blood circulation which increases bone nourishment
Fractures • Fracture: any type of break • 2 types • Closed (aka simple) • Nothing protrudes/sticks out • Open ( aka compound) • One or both bone ends project through skin
Joints- • A part of the body where bones are connected.
Types of joints • Immovable • Slightly movable • Freely movable