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Skeletal System

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  1. Skeletal System

  2. Entrance Question • Explain the relationship between cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems?

  3. Answer: • The body is organized into cells, tissues, organs, organs systems. Cells that have similar functions make up tissue; two or more types of tissue work together to form an organ; organs work together to form a system.

  4. Objective 3.2 • Relate major tissues and organs of the skeletal system to their functions.

  5. Objectives • Functions • Name 3 of the 4 functions of the skeletal system. • Name 1 mineral that is stored by the bones. • Identify where blood cells are made. • Structures • Identify which division of the skeleton is for protection and which is for movement. • Name 1 place cartilage is located and explain what it does. • Explain the difference between a ligament and a tendon. • If you break a bone how does it heal? What is the process called? • Label 8 bones on the skeletal system diagram.

  6. Let’s ask the experts • What is the skeletal system? • http://www.brainpop.com/health/skeletalsystem/skeleton/

  7. Functions of the Skeletal System: 1. Movement • Strong framework on which muscles can act 2. Supports & protects organs 3. Regulates and stores body minerals and fats • calcium, phosphorus 4. Produces red and white blood cells in bone marrow

  8. Bone • One of the hard parts forming the skeleton in vertebrate animals.

  9. Bones are composed of tissue that may take one of two form. Most bones contain both types. • Compact- dense bone • Spongy- cancellous bone

  10. Compact bone- is dense , hard, and forms the protective exterior portion of all bones. • Spongy bone- is inside the compact bone and is very porous (full of tiny holes) occurs in most bones.

  11. Structure of bones Red marrow Yellow marrow

  12. http://www.brainpop.com/health/skeletalsystem/bonestructure/

  13. Bone tissue • The bone tissue is composed of several types of bone cells embedded in a web of inorganic salts (mostly calcium and phosphorus) to give the bone strength and collagenous fibers and ground substance to give the bone flexibility.

  14. Bone marrow-thesoft reddish substance inside the center of many bones that is involved in the production of blood cells and storage of fat.

  15. Types of bone marrow • Yellow marrow- yellow fatty tissue that fills the central cavities of long and stores fat in bones. In children, more red marrow fills the center of long bones. • Red marrow-  is the site of red and white blood cell production.It is found inside of long bones. This red marrow is replaced with yellow marrow as children become adults.

  16. Food for thought • Why do children have more red marrow in the center of their bones than adults?

  17. adult skeleton- • 206 bones • Newborn have more cartilage • Bones start as cartilage • Human babies contains more bones which begin to fuse together as the child grows.

  18. No bones about it! • The bones of the body fall into four general categories: • Long bones • Short bones • Flat bones • Irregular bones

  19. Four types of bones • Long bones – extremities • Short bones – cube-shaped, wrist & ankle • Flat bones – skull, sternum, scapula, ribs • Irregular bones – vertebrae, pelvis

  20. Long Bones • Are longer than they are wide • Work as levers • Upper and lower extremities (examples- humerus, tibia, femur, ulna, metacarpals, etc.)

  21. Short Bones • minimal or no shaft • Often square or cube shaped and found in the wrist and ankles.

  22. Flat Bone • Skull • Two sheets of compact bone • Spongy bone • They have broad surfaces for protection of organs and attachment of muscles.

  23. Irregular bones • Bones of the face and vertebrae • They have varied shapes, sizes and surface features. • All other bones that do not fall into the previous categories.

  24. (aka cranium) scapula carpals metacarpals phalanges tarsals metatarsals phalanges

  25. Cartilage • Lines the surface of joints so they move smoothly • Cushions vertebrae • Supports nose and ears

  26. Movement • Ligaments • Bone to bone at a joint • Prevents excessive movement • Tendons • Muscle to muscle • Muscle to bone Play the air piano!!…what you see in your hands are your tendons working

  27. Care 99% of body calcium is in your bones!!! • Nutrition: minerals • Calcium builds strong bones • Found in dairy products • During teen years, body builds most of its bone mass • Phosphorus • Combines with calcium • Milk, peas, beans, liver, cottage cheese, broccoli • Exercise • Weight-bearing exercises increase bone mass • Promotes blood circulation which increases bone nourishment

  28. Fractures • Fracture: any type of break • 2 types • Closed (aka simple) • Nothing protrudes/sticks out • Open ( aka compound) • One or both bone ends project through skin

  29. Joints- • A part of the body where bones are connected.

  30. Types of joints • Immovable • Slightly movable • Freely movable

  31. http://www.brainpop.com/health/skeletalsystem/joints/