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Absolutism –France 16.2. Objectives. Understand how Henry IV rebuilt France after the wars of religion. Explain how Louis XIV became an absolute monarch. Describe how Versailles was a symbol of royal power. Identify Louis XIV’s successes and failures. Religious Wars. 1560-1590s
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Objectives • Understand how Henry IV rebuilt France after the wars of religion. • Explain how Louis XIV became an absolute monarch. • Describe how Versailles was a symbol of royal power. • Identify Louis XIV’s successes and failures.
Religious Wars • 1560-1590s • Huguenots v. Catholics • Culmination – St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre
St. Bart’s Day massacre 1589 becomes King and converts. “Paris is well worth a mass” -Becomes Henry IV Edict of Nantes(1598) Henry of Navarre
“A chicken in every pot”p.511 • Growing absolutism • Increase of government in lives of citizens • Reduced influence of nobles
Louis XIII • Henry IV assassinated (1610) • 9 Year old Louis XIII takes throne • Nobles begin to take power back
Louis XIII is weak so he installed Cardinal Richelieu as minister 1624. Looked to gain absolute rule, how? Persecute Huguenots Nobles castles/spies War w/ Hapsburgs Installed Cardinal Mazarin as successor Richelieu p. 511
Rise of the Sun King • Louis XIV and the Fronde -violentprotest of royal power by merchants, nobles and peasants • Mazarin died 1661 • Great Grandson of Philip II – follower of Divine Right • “L’etat, c’estmoi” • Ignored Estates General (had not met since 1614)
Louis XIV (1643) • Mazarin disliked by nobles=Louis’ distrust as child. Rebellion a failure, led people to believe that a King is better than violence. • At 23 is King. Immediately goes about gaining absolute power. How? • Intendants (expanded bureaucracy) • Excluding nobles
Louis XIV led the charge. “I order you not to sign anything, not even a passport without my command; to render account to me personally each day and to favor no one.”
His control of nobility was complete Arts/entertainment Court lifestyle “I am the state” The Sun King
France’s Financesp. 512 • Jean-Baptiste Colbert (mercantilism) • Encouraged basic industries • High Tariffs on imports • Growing colonialism – regulated trade • France became wealthiest in Europe
Versailles • 2,000 Rooms • Over 500 yards long • Over $2.5 billion (2003) to build, 36,000 laborers • How did it show absolute power? • Nobles moved there • Silenced nobility and took control of policy, taxes, and Church.
Legacy of Louis • Expanded French borders by war. • Voltaire on Louis XIV[It is certain that he passionately wanted glory, rather than the conquests themselves. In the acquisition of Alsace and half of Flanders, and of all of Franche-Comté, what he really liked was the name he made for himself]. • Died with France in major debt