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Unit 6 Part I. Absolutism and Scientific Revolution Chapters 5 and 6. Absolute Rule. Absolutism: Period when a series of European monarchs who ruled alone and increased the power of their central government. Absolute Rulers: Centralization of power

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unit 6 part i

Unit 6 Part I

Absolutism and Scientific Revolution

Chapters 5 and 6

absolute rule
Absolute Rule

Absolutism: Period when a series of European monarchs who ruled alone and increased the power of their central government


Absolute Rulers:

    • Centralization of power
    • Many believed in concept of divine right!
england s absolute monarchy
England’s Absolute Monarchy

Fight for the throne—Wars of the Roses

Lancaster (Red) vs. York (White)

Henry Tudor (Red) wins = Henry VII

under elizabeth
Under Elizabeth
  • England was invaded by Philip II b/c he had grown impatient waiting for England to become Catholic again.

1588 Sp. Armada-”Prot. Wind”

  • Elizabeth was successful in defeating the Spanish Armada!
queen elizabeth i
Queen Elizabeth I
  • Died with no heirs
  • Cousins in Scotland – Stuart Dynasty—now begins
james i 1603 1625
James I 1603-1625

Tensions with Parliament – Divine Right

Remembered for giving the Puritans an English translation of the Bible (King James Version)

magna carta
Magna Carta
  • King John was forced to sign this document in 1215!
  • Limited the king’s power & protected the baron’s rights
charles i 1625 1649
Charles I –1625-1649
  • Son of James I
  • Divine Right
  • Dissolved Parliament for 11 years

Irritated the Puritans –Many left=Great Migration

  • Ireland Revolted, Scotland invaded-Charles needed Parliament
charles i cont
Charles I cont…

English Civil War—Charles led an army (Cavaliers) and invaded Parliament

Cromwell (Puritan) leader of the Roundheads (supporters of Parliament) defeated the royalists/Cavaliers twice


Royalists vs Puritans

  • Charles I vs Oliver Cromwell
  • Charles I tried for treason and beheaded!!
oliver cromwell 1653 1658
Oliver Cromwell-1653-1658

Tried to establish a Republic with a constitution (people would elect leader)

Eventually dissolves Parliament—ruled as military dictator

charles ii 1660 1685
Charles II 1660-1685
  • Restoration!!! Restored the Monarchy
  • Gave in to Parliament b/c of his Dad
  • Got New York from the Dutch
james ii 1685 1688
James II 1685-1688
  • Catholic—remarries has a Catholic son
  • His daughter—Mary is Protestant

Wanted Absolute Authority

  • Eventually fled the country after invasion by William of Orange (son-in-law)
william and mary 1688 1694 mary 1702 william
William and Mary1688-1694 (Mary) 1702 (William)

James II was not liked, but they could not execute him…they knew when he died Mary (daughter/Protestant) would inherit the thrown. His son would rule first (Catholic) Parliament decided to invite Mary and William (husband) to invade country 1688

william and mary cont
William and Mary cont…
  • First dual monarchy
  • They work well with Parliament and accept limited power (Limited Constitutional Monarchy-monarchs power limited by a constitution)
  • Parliament will pass many laws—protecting the rights of individuals
english parliament
English Parliament

Habeas Corpus—individual has the right to be seen by a judge w/in a reasonable amount of time either to be released or charged w/a crime


English Bill of Rights-monarch could not interfere in the elections or operations of Parliament …and some basic rights to citizens

english parliament cont
English Parliament cont…

Act of Toleration-Religious freedom to dissenters (not Anglican)

anne sister of mary 1701 1714
Anne (sister of Mary) 1701-1714
  • Estab. A cabinet (group of advisors)
  • Leader of the Cabinet=Prime Minister
anne con d
Anne con’d
  • Act of Union (1707)

Joined Scotland and England into the United Kingdom

Last of the Stuart dynasty

away from england
Away from England


French and Indian War

American Revolution

Treaty of Paris

Proclamation of 1763

  • Ended the American Revolutionary War
  • King George III of England forbid American settlers to go beyond the line along the Appalachians. (After England claimed the French lands from the French and Indian War)
  • Mid-1500s—France destroyed by religious conflicts btwn Huguenots and Catholics
st bartholomew s day
St. Bartholomew’s Day

King of France attempted to kill the leader’s of the Huguenots…once the killing started mobs of Catholic Parisians started to began a general massacre of Huguenots. (the king’s sister, Margaret, had just married Henry of Navarre—the leader of the Huguenots)


1589—Henry of Navarre became Henry IV (Bourbon) a Protestant wins the throne helps to resolve chaos in France


Converts to Catholicism

  • Edict of Nantes: Allowed the Huguenots to practice their own religion—Religious Toleration
france cont
France cont…
  • 1610—Louis XIII
  • 9 years old
  • Appointed Cardinal Richelieu as chief minister

Strengthened the gov’t

  • Destroyed power of the nobles & Huguenots
    • Hand picked his own successor – Mazarin
france cont1
France cont…
  • 1643—Louis XIV—72 years of rule
  • 5 years old with Mazarin as chief minister until 1661 (23 yrs old then)

Believed in divine right

Never used the Estates-General (similar to Parliament)

Took the sun as his symbol—sun=center

SUN KING=center of French nation

france cont2
France cont…
  • Louis XIV
    • Strengthened the gov’t
      • Tax collections—intendants (middle class)
      • Army=strongest in Europe
      • Diversified economy: Home-taxes-wealthiest state in Europe
      • Colonies-Furs
france cont3
France cont…
  • Louis XIV
    • Extravagant Lifestyle
    • Palace of Versailles (p. 141)
    • Sponsored the Arts
france cont4
France cont…
  • Louis XIV—Setbacks
    • Costly wars—Esp. the War of the Spanish Succession 1700-1713 (France tried to unite France and Spain)

Persecution of the Huguenots: revoked the Edict of Nantes—Huguenots fled and hurt the economy


Louis XIV outlived his sons and grandsons died in 1715—his great grandson inherited the throne as Louis XV

  • Powerful German state and part of the Holy Roman Empire
  • Charles VI was king of Austria and leader of the Hapsburg Family and the H.R.E.
charles vi
Charles VI
  • Had no sons; wrote the Pragmatic Sanction to allow daughter, Maria Theresa, to inherit the throne

Sanction signed by other European nations and Pope honored it as well, but must marry and husband will be H.R.E.

30 years war cause
30 Years War--Cause
  • Began over territory, religion & power over the ruling families
  • 1618-1648
hapsburg triumphs con d
Hapsburg Triumphs con’d
  • Ferdinand was Catholic so Protestants feared him & revolted
  • Ferdinand II paid his army to plunder/rob German villages
  • Destroyed everything!
30 years war
30 Years War
  • Hapsburg Triumphs
  • 1st 12 years H. armies from Austria & Spain crushed Protestant troops
30 years war1
30 Years War
  • Hapsburg Defeats:
  • Sweden drove Haps. Out of Northern Germany
hapsburg defeats con d
Hapsburg Defeats con’d
  • Cardinal Richelieu & Mazarin feared Haps more so sent French troops to help!
30 years war2
30 Years War
  • Peace of Westphalia
  • 1648
  • Weakened Hapsburg states of Spain & Austria
  • Strengthened France by giving it German territory
peace of westphalia con d
Peace of Westphalia con’d
  • Made German princes independent of Holy Roman Emperor
  • Ended religious wars in Europe
maria theresa
Maria Theresa
  • Charles VI daughter
  • Heir to Hapsburg empire
  • Enemy was Prussia
  • Now part of the country of Germany
  • Frederick William—the Great Elector—was founder of the Hohenzollern Family

Hohenzollerns ruling family in Prussia

  • H: had the best standing army
  • H: militaristic society

Frederick William I was the first king of Prussia

  • Started the military and Potsdam Guard, personal body guards, had to be 7 feet tall

Son’s friend is beheaded because Frederick II and friend tried to run away

  • Frederick II had to watch
prussia cont
Prussia cont…

Frederick II—known as the GREAT because he introduced culture to the country and expanded the borders of the country by using the army against Austria and Poland

  • Ivan the Terrible was an awful ruler and caused Russia to develop slower than the rest of Europe

After Ivan’s death and the death of his son, the leaders of the country elected Michael Romanov to take over

russia cont
Russia cont…

Romanov Dynasty: founded by Michael, and this dynasty will last until 1918 when Nicholas II and his family was assassinated (Anastasia). Longest running dynasty in European history—over 300 years

russia cont1
Russia cont…
  • Peter the Great—studied in Europe in order to westernize Europe, created city of St. Petersburg “Window to the West”

changed diet, hygiene habits, and dress of Russians, expanded borders by acquiring Siberia, created modern army and won against Sweden to gain access to the Baltic Sea…never won a warm water port!!



The Great

russia cont2
Russia cont…

Catherine the Great—German princess

Married Russian Czar…had her husband killed and took over

Took territory away from Poland

Punished serfs

Created schools for girls


Greatest accomplishment—gaining a warm water port by defeating the Ottoman Turks=access to Black Sea for trade w/Europe

Last of great absolute monarchs of the century

scientific revolution1
Scientific Revolution
  • With its emphasis on reasoned observation and systematic measurement, the Scientific Revolution changed the way people viewed the world and their place in it!
remember the medieval view
Remember the Medieval View?
  • Aristotle
  • Ptolemy
  • Geocentric Theory: earth center of universe
  • Supported this view
scientific revolution2
Scientific Revolution
  • Scientific Revolution
  • Ppl were willing to question accepted beliefs
nicolaus copernicus
Nicolaus Copernicus
  • Heliocentric Theory: sun-center of universe
johannes kepler
Johannes Kepler
  • Continued Brahe’s work & discovered planetary movement
  • Proved this through math!
kepler con d
Kepler con’d
  • Copernicus was right!
  • Planets did revolve around the sun
galileo galilei
Galileo Galilei
  • Discovered law of the pendulum
  • Built his own telescope used it to support the heliocentric theory
galileo con d
Galileo con’d
  • Went aga church teaching & authority, warned not to but did it anyway!
  • Condemned!
scientific method
Scientific Method
  • Logical procedure for gathering & testing ideas
  • Developed from previous guys’ work!
isaac newton
Isaac Newton
  • Law of universal gravitation
  • Earth & heavens
william harvey
William Harvey
  • Discovered circulation of the blood!
edward jenner
Edward Jenner
  • World’s 1st vaccination
  • Small pox vaccine!