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Exploring Management. Chapter 3. Ethics and Social Responsibility. Chapter 3. How do ethics and ethical behavior play out in the workplace? How can we maintain high standards of ethical conduct? What should we know about the social responsibilities of organizations?.

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Chapter 3

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  1. Exploring Management Chapter 3 Ethics and Social Responsibility

  2. Chapter 3 • How do ethics and ethical behavior play out in the workplace? • How can we maintain high standards of ethical conduct? • What should we know about the social responsibilities of organizations?

  3. 3.1Ethics in the workplace • Ethical behavior is values driven. • What is considered ethical varies among moral reasoning approaches. • What is considered ethical can vary across cultures. • Ethical dilemmas arise as tests of personal ethics and values. • People have tendencies to rationalize unethical behaviors.

  4. ethics in the workplaceEthical Behavior • Ethics • A code of moral principles that sets standards of good or bad, or right or wrong, in our conduct. • Ethical Behavior • That which is “right” or “good” in the context of governing moral code. • Ethical behavior is value driven

  5. ethics in the workplaceValues • Values • Broad beliefs about what is appropriate behavior • Terminal Values • Preferences about desired end states • Instrumental Values • Preferences regarding the means to desired ends

  6. ethics in the workplaceMoral Reasoning • Moral Reasoning • Reasons for various ethical practices

  7. ethics in the workplaceMoral Reasoning • Utilitarian View • Which action delivers the most good to the largest amount of people?

  8. ethics in the workplaceMoral Reasoning • Individualism View • Which action is in our best interest in the long-term? • Can be quite different from the best choice for the short term

  9. ethics in the workplaceMoral Reasoning • Justice View

  10. ethics in the workplaceMoral Reasoning • Moral Rights View • Fundamental rights of all people are respected

  11. ethics in the workplace Moral Reasoning Excerpt From Universal Declaration of Human Rights United Nations • Article 1—All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and right • Article 18—Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience, and religion • Article 19—Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression • Article 23—Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favorable conditions of work • Article 26—Everyone has the right to education

  12. ethics in the workplace Ethics and Culture • Cultural Relativism • Suggest that there is no one right way to behave; cultural context determines ethical behavior

  13. ethics in the workplaceEthical Dilemma • Ethical Dilemma • A situation that, although offering potential benefits, is unethical. • One of the most common ethical dilemmas occurs when a company’s culture conflicts with an employee’s personal ethics.

  14. ethics in the workplace Ethics and Work The Wall Street Journal reports: • 36% of workers calling in sick are lying. • 35% keep quiet about co-worker misconduct. • 12% of job resumes contain falsehoods. • Managers are more likely than other workers to report wrongdoing. • Managers with 0–3 years experience feel most pressure to violate personal ethics.

  15. ethics in the workplace Rationalizing Unethical Behavior Four reasons:

  16. 3.2Maintaining high standards • Personal factors moral development influence ethical conduct. • Training in ethical decision making may improve ethical conduct. • Protection of whistleblowers may encourage ethical conduct. • Managers acting as positive role models can inspire ethical conduct. • Formal codes of ethics set standards for ethical conduct

  17. maintaining high standardsInfluence on Moral Development • Ethical Frameworks • Personal rules and strategies for making ethical decisions • Lawrence Kohlberg • Three levels of moral development

  18. maintaining high standardsEthics Training • Ethics Training • Seeks to help people understand the ethical aspects of decision making and to incorporate high ethical standards into their daily behavior.

  19. ethics in the workplaceEthical Dilemma • Checklist for dealing with ethical dilemmas • Step 1 • Recognize the ethical dilemma. • Step 2 • Get the facts. • Step 3 • Identify your options. • Step 4 • Test each option: Is it legal? Is it right? Is it beneficial? • Step 5 • Decide which option to follow. • Step 6 • Ask the “Spotlight Questions”: To double check your decision. • “How would I feel if my family found out about my decision?” • “How would I feel if the local newspaper printed my decision?” • Step 7 • Take action

  20. maintaining high standardsEthics Training Spotlight questions highlight the risk of public exposure of one’s actions: • How would I feel if my family found out about my decision? • How would I feel if my decision was in the local newspaper or posted on the internet? • What would the person I know who has the strongest character and best ethical judgment say about my decision?

  21. maintaining high standardsWhistleblowing • Whistleblowers • Persons who expose organizational misdeeds in order to preserve ethical standards and protect against wasteful, harmful, or illegal acts. • Many whistleblowers were / are fired for their actions. • State and federal laws now offer some protection.

  22. maintaining high standardsWhistleblowing • Organizational barriers to whistleblowing • Strict chain of command • Strong work group identities • Ambiguous priorities

  23. maintaining high standardsManagement Influence • Management Behavior • In order to have a positive impact on ethical conduct throughout an organization, those at the top must walk the talk.

  24. Maintaining high standardsCodes of Ethics • Formal codes of ethics set standards for ethical conduct. • Explain ethical principles • Describe expected behavior

  25. 3.3Social Responsibility • Social responsibility is an organization’s obligation to best serve society • Scholars argue cases for and against corporate social responsibility • Social responsibility audits measure the social performance of organizations • Sustainability is an important social responsibility goal • Social business and social entrepreneurs point the way in social responsibility

  26. SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITYSocial Responsibility is Serving Society • Stakeholders are the groups that have a direct interest in the success or failure of an organization.

  27. SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITYSocial Responsibility is Serving Society • Corporate Social Responsibility • The obligation of an organization to serve its own interest and those of its stakeholders

  28. SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITYSocial Responsibility is Serving Society • Triple Bottom Line—how well an organization performs when measured not only on financial criteria, but also on social and environmental ones. • Is the decision economically sound? • Is the decision socially responsible? • Is the decision environmentally sound? • Three Ps • Profit, People, Planet

  29. SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITYCorporate Social Responsibility

  30. SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITYSocial Responsibility • Virtuous Circle • Socially responsible actions lead to improved financial performance. • Organization is more likely to engage in socially responsible acts in the future. • Example: car manufacturers who produce fuel-efficient and hybrid cars may see improved financial performance and introduce more fuel efficient models.

  31. SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITYMeasuring Social Responsibility • Social responsibility audit • Determines the organization’s performance in various areas of social responsibility • Ranges from compliance to conviction

  32. SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITYSustainability • Sustainability • concerns doing business in such a way that respects future generations and their right to the world's natural resources

  33. SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITYSustainability • Sustainable business • Organization operates in a way that meets the needs of the customer and protects natural environment • Sustainable development • uses natural resources in such a way that today's needs are met, yet they are preserved for future generations

  34. SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITYSustainability • Environmental Capital • Land • Water • Minerals • Atmosphere

  35. SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITYSustainability • ISO14001 • Global quality standard that certifies organizational environmental objectives for minimal environmental impact.

  36. SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITYSustainability • Social business • Business model that addresses social problems such as hunger, illiteracy, poverty • Social entrepreneurs • Create businesses that help to solve social problems • Examples: Grameen Bank, Tom’s Shoes