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Chapter 3. Computer Hardware. II. A Brief History of Computer Hardware . Without computers many technological achievements would not have been possible: Counting with fingers/toes Blaise Pascal, 1642 – invented the first mechanical adding machine. A Brief History of Computer Hardware .

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chapter 3

Chapter 3

Computer Hardware

ii a brief history of computer hardware
II. A Brief History of Computer Hardware

Without computers many technological achievements would not have been possible:

Counting with fingers/toes

Blaise Pascal, 1642 – invented the first mechanical adding machine

a brief history of computer hardware
A Brief History of Computer Hardware

Herman Hollerith – Hollerith’s Punch Card system to record census data in late 1880’s; 1911 – merged with competitor to form IBM

ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator), 1946 – the world’s first electronic digital computer

ii a brief history of computer hardware4
II. A Brief History of Computer Hardware

1950’s – Transistors were invented and replaced tubes

1958 – Integrated Circuit (“chip”) was invented

1970’s – 1980’s

Further miniaturization of circuits

Apple Computer and IBM PC

iii types of computer systems
III. Types of Computer Systems

Computers come in a variety of sizes, shapes, and computing capabilities –


Midrange (obsolete due to powerful microcomputers)


iv microcomputer systems personal computer
IV. Microcomputer Systems (Personal Computer)

The most important category for businesses and consumers, exceeds the power of many mainframes

Workstations – support mathematical and graphical demands

Network Servers – support telecommunications and resource sharing

Computer Terminals – any device that allows access to a computer

iv microcomputer systems personal computer7
IV. Microcomputer Systems (Personal Computer)

Network Computers – designed specifically for use with networks and the Internet; low TCO (total cost of ownership)

Information Appliances – Web-enabled devices for accessing information from anywhere – cell phones, PDAs, handheld PCs

corporate pc criteria
Corporate PC Criteria

Why laptops instead of desktops?

Why would a change in OS be disruptive?

What are the strengths vs. risks of cabled vs. wireless PCs?

v midrange mainframe and supercomputer systems
V. Midrange, Mainframe, and Supercomputer Systems

Midrange Systems – popular as Network Servers; disappearing due to microcomputers

Mainframe Systems – large, fast, and powerful, used for high transaction processing and complex computations; used by corporations and government agencies

Supercomputers – extremely powerful, extremely high speeds and massive numeric computations

v midrange mainframe and supercomputer systems10
V. Midrange, Mainframe, and Supercomputer Systems

The Next Wave of Computing – minisupercomputers; connecting all the power of unused desktops in an organization

Distributed (Grid) Computing – parallel computing over a network

Advantages – purchase nodes as a commodity, economies of scale

Disadvantages – untrustworthy calculations, lack of centralized control

vii moore s law
VII. Moore’s Law

Moore’s Law 1965 – the number of transistors on a chip will double every 18-24 months – essentially, the power or speed of a computer will double every 18-24 months

The Price would halve in that same time, which has also proven to be true

Recent statistics indicate this time has decreased to 12 months


Section 2

Computer Peripherals: Input, Output, and Storage Technologies

Peripheral - a generic name for all input, output, and secondary storage devices not part of the CPU (basically, what is connected to the outside of the computer)

ii input technologies
II. Input technologies

Input Devices – keyboards, mice, light pens, trackballs, touch screens

Speech Recognition Systems – understands spoken commands/words

Discrete Speech Recognition – speak each word separately

Continuous Speech Recognition – recognizes conversationally-paced speech

Speaker-Independent Voice Recognition – understands speech from a voice it has never heard before

ii input technologies15
II. Input technologies

Optical Scanning – converts text or graphics to digital input for direct entry of source documents

Other Input Technologies

Magnetic Stripe – on credit cards

Smart Cards – contain an embedded chip

Digital Cameras

Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR) – used in banking industry

forget the atm deposit checks without leaving home
Forget the ATM: Deposit Checks Without Leaving Home

What does federal Check 21 Act allow?

What is the concern of consumers remotely depositing checks?

What basic security is provided?

What limits/restrictions are placed on the consumers?

iv storage tradeoffs18
IV. Storage Tradeoffs

Direct and Sequential Access

Direct Access and Random Access are the same concept; locate an address on the storage device and go directly to that location for data access

Sequential Access – All tape devices are accessed serially – device must be read one record at a time from the data until the desired data is found

vi magnetic disks hard drives are the most common form of secondary storage
VI. Magnetic Disks – Hard drives are the most common form of secondary storage

RAID (Redundant Arrays of Independent Disks) Storage – interconnected groups of hard drives - fast speeds and fault tolerant (redundant backups)

v semiconductor memory
V. Semiconductor Memory

RAM (Random Access Memory) – volatile, may be read and over-written

ROM (Read Only Memory) – non-volatile, may be read but not over-written or erased; PROM and EPROM may be reprogrammed

Flash (Jump) Drives – solid-state memory

iv storage tradeoffs21
IV. Storage Tradeoffs

Computer Storage Fundamentals

Binary Representation – Two-state, on/off, +/-, 0/1

Bit – Binary digit, 0/1

Byte – Grouping of bits (typically 8 bits/byte), represents a single character

ASCII – formalized code determining what byte values represent which character

Storage capacities – kilobytes (KB), megabytes (MB), gigabytes (GB), terabytes (TB)

vii viii magnetic tape optical disks
VII & VIII. Magnetic Tape & Optical Disks

Magnetic Tape – slow speeds, but inexpensive for large amounts of backups

Optical Disks – CD-ROM, CD-R, DVD-R (cannot be erased or re-written); CD-RW, DVD-RW (may be erased or re-written)

vii radio frequency identification rfid
VII. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)

RFID – for tagging and identifying mobile objects (store merchandise, postal objects, sometimes living organisms); provides information to a reader when requested

Passive – no power source, derives power from the reader signal

Active – self-powered, do not need to be close to the reader

RFID Privacy Issues – may be used as spychips; gathers sensitive information about an individual without consent