REMEMBERING 2O10’s EARTHQUAKES AND TSUNAMIS Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, University of North Carolina, USA
IMPACTED NATIONS Haiti, Chile (Pacific Rim Nations), Turkey, Indonesia, China, Iran, …
Over two hundred-twenty thousand people killed and even more injured. Millions of homes without power, damaged, or destroyed. Millions displaced, and their lives and livelihoods adversely affected. Importance of building codes with seismic design provisions highlighted. SOCIETAL IMPACTS DURING 2010 • $ Tens of billions in insured and uninsured economic losses. • Infrastructure damaged and destroyed. • Health care needs sharply increased.
EARTHQUAKES HAITI CHILE TURKEY INDONESIA CHINA TAIWAN IRAN
M7.0 EARTHQUAKE STRIKES HAITI THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE’S POOREST NATION WITH 8 IN 10 AT POVERTY LEVEL 4:53 p.m.; JANUARY 12, 2010
SOCIETAL IMPACTS • The lives of 3 million+ Haitians were adversely impacted. • The Dominion Republic, Haiti’s neighbor, which experienced a M8.0 earthquake and tsunami in 1946 on a thrust fault, escaped with minimal impacts, but remains at high risk in future quakes.
CATASTROPHIC DEATH TOLL OF 220,000+ • The estimate of 220,000+ casualties became reality after burial in mass graves and search and rescue by Haitian and Int’l teams ended, and the rubble of thousands of collapsed buildings was cleared.
INFRASTRUCTURE DAMAGE • Power was knocked out. • Communication was disrupted. • Utility service was interrupted. • Roads were damaged. • The airport’s control tower was badly damaged, limiting useage. • The port was damaged.
M8.8 EARTHQUAKE STRIKES CENTRAL CHILE:3:34 am on February 27, 2010 Subduction Zone Quake 500 Times More Energy than the M7.0 Haiti Quake 800+ Deaths; 500+ Injured Numerous Aftershocks Tsunami Waves Travel Across Pacific Estimated Loss: $30 Billion
The Chilean people had to cope with the demands associated with: 1) a mega-quake, 2) a vigorous aftershock sequence with large events, 3) tsunami wave run up, 4) looting by some of the affluent sector, and 5) recovery after the loss of 15 percent of the GDP.
TSUNAMI(after the Chile earthquake) LOCAL AND PACIFIC- WIDE IMPACTS FROM THE FEBRUARY 27, 2010 CHILE EARTHQUAKE
M7.7 EARTHQUAKE STRIKES INDONESIA NEAR EPICENTER OF 2004 QUAKE SUBDUCTION ZONE OF SUNDA AND INDO-AUSTRALIA PLATES 5:15 AM, APRIL 7, 2010
This earthquake, although much less powerful than the 2004 earthquake, awakened memories of the December 26, 2004 earthquake and Indian Ocean tsunami that killed over 216,000 people in 14 countries and caused losses of over $10 B.
The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center issued a watch for tsunamis in Sumatra and Indian Ocean countries, but a destructive ocean surge never happened.
M6.1 EARTHQUAKE STRIKES EASTERN TURKEY AT 4:32 AM THREE VILLAGES DESTROYED ALONG WITH MANY FARM ANIMALS AT LEAST 57 DEAD MARCH 8, 2010
Turkey has a long history of damaging earthquakes. The quake struck the in Elazig province at 4:32 am, leaving the village of Okcular and two others devastated .
The earthquake occurred near the intersection of the Northern Anatolian and the East Anatolian faults.
TRAPPED WHILE SLEEPING The pre-dawn earthquake struck as residents slept, shaking the poorly made buildings into piles of rubble and causing survivors to flee into the narrow streets to escape the aftershocks.
AN INTRAPLATE, M6.9 EARTHQUAKE STRIKES WESTERN CHINA STRONG AFTERSHOCKS FOLLOWED THE MAIN SHOCK 7:49 AM OCCURRENCE WAS DEADLY FOR SCHOOL CHILDREN APRIL 14, 2010
This earthquake didn't occur where the Indo-Australia and Eurasia plates meet; instead, it was an intraplate earthquake, occurring in the Tibetan plateau within the Eurasian plate. The Tibetan Plateau was created, along with the Himalayas, about 50 million years ago, as part of the Indian subcontinent began to collide with Eurasia.
The M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake that occurred on May 12, 2008 in Sichuan Province, which was 32 x stronger, was generated on the Longmenshan fault system.
The earthquake was centered in the township of Jiegu, in the county of Yushu, a rural, mountainous area that is part of the Tibetan Plateau populated mainly by farmers, sheepherders, and trades people. Qamdo, Tibet is the largest city near the epicenter.
More than 90 % of the sun-dried mud brick and wood houses and buildings in the epicentral area collapsed, killing an estimated 1,144 people and injuring about 10,000..