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How to Prepare for Earthquakes

How to Prepare for Earthquakes

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How to Prepare for Earthquakes

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  1. 高楷娟 敦建勇 段小虎 编 New Horizon College English Unit 6: Section A How to Prepare for Earthquakes 新视野

  2. Text Analysis Pre-reading Activities Background information Compound dictation Questions & Answers Watch & Discuss Main idea and devices for developing it Summary Expressions & Patterns How to apply to our real life the typical expressions and patterns taken from the text Blank filling Exercises Writing All the exercises for Section A 议论文写作技巧

  3. I. Pre-reading Activities: Listen, Look & Say Background Information Acquaint yourself with some relevant information. Compound Dictation Listen to a passage and fill in the missing words. Questions & Answers Listen to a passage and answer some questions. Watch & Discuss Watch the video and discuss the given topics.

  4. Back I. Pre-reading Activities: Listen, Look & Say The Great Hanshin Earthquake Disaster: At 5:46:51 AM, on January 17, 1995, a magnitude 7.2 earthquake occurred around Kobe City in Japan. The earthquake magnitude was defined by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). The earthquake was named “the 1995 South Hyogo Prefecture Earthquake” (or the 1995 Hyogoken Nanbu Earthquake) by JMA. It was also referred to as “the Great Hanshin Earthquake Disaster” by the Japanese government.

  5. Back I. Pre-reading Activities: Listen, Look & Say Compound Dictation Directions: You will hear a passage. It will be read twice. Listen carefully and supply the missing words.

  6. Back tend opposing activities accelerate harm cleaning particles the collective smoke from thousands of factories has caused enormous increases in air pollution levels worldwide has exceeded the protective ability of natural processes All natural systems ____ toward balance among ________ factors or forces. Human ________ can cause or _________ permanent changes in natural systems. The smoke of one small fire causes no _____ to the environment. Natural ________ processes can clean the ________ of smoke from the air. However, _______________ _____________________________, over the past two centuries, _____________________________ _____________________________. Cleaning this smoke __________________________________________________.

  7. Back I. Pre-reading Activities: Listen, Look & Say Questions & Answers 1. Have you ever been in an earthquake? What do you think you would do first if the room started to shake? key 2. How should we prepare for earthquakes? key 3.If you were going to rent an apartment, would you like to live on the top floor or on the first floor? Explain your choice. key

  8. Yes, I have been in the Great Tangshan Earthquake Disaster, which brought 240,000 deaths. To my knowledge, therefore, the moment you realize you are confronted with an earthquake, you must keep cool and avoid being seized with panic. It is foolish of you to run aimlessly or to jump from your building. The best way of saving yourself is to take shelter where you are. 1) If you are in class, take shelter under a desk, shielding your eyes with one hand fromthe flying fragmentsof broken glass. 2) If you are in a building, resort to narrow rooms, like kitchens, rest rooms, bathrooms, or the staircase rooms, for protection. 3) If you are in a single-story house, run as far away from the house and other structures as possible when there is enough time for you to do so and when you can still keep your balance; otherwise, shield yourself under a bed/in a corner or attach yourself to a pillar/other concrete structures, covering your mouth and nose with a towel. 4) If you are in a workshop, cut off the electricity or the explosive/inflammable gas supplies first and then take shelter under a big machine. In the Tangshan earthquake, for example, all 30 workers in a weaving workshopsurvived the quake in this way except one, who was killed when running out of the building. Reference Words: to bring many deaths, to sb.’s knowledge, to be confronted with, to keep cool, to avoid being seized with panic, to run aimlessly, to jump from a building, to take shelter where sb. is, in class, to shield one’s eyes from the fragments of broken glass, to resort to … for protection, rest room, staircase room, single-story house, to keep your balance, to shield yourself, to attach yourself to, to cut off, explosive gas, inflammable gas, weaving workshop, to survive a quake key 返回

  9. Since earthquakes occur at any time without fore- warning signs, we should prepare for them as follows: 1) Regularly check and reinforce our houses, place heavy things in low positions, attach cupboards and cabinets to walls. 2) Keepin place survival supplies such as water, food, a radio receiver, a torch, extra batteries, a first-aid box, some rope and some warm clothing. 3) Arrange an auxiliary cooking and heating source; keep a fire extinguisher, a pair of heavy boots, and other proper tools to turn off gas and water supplies. 4) Make arrangements in case of an earthquake for family members to save and support themselves. Reference Words: to occur at any time, without forewarning signs, to reinforce one’s house, to attach sth. to a wall, cupboard, cabinet, to keep sth. in place, auxiliary cooking and heating source, fire extinguisher, in case of, to save and support oneself key 返回

  10. Truly, living on the top floor can bring me many advantages such as the enjoyment of a broad vision, flowing fresh air, and ample sunlight, but seems less attractive to me in the event of an emergency. For one thing, living on the first floor offers me more chances of survival. During the September eleven terrorist attacks on America, for example, those working on the top floor had no option but to stay at the mercy of fate. For another, living on the first floor is very convenient. And even in case of an earthquake, I could either take shelter where I am or run out of the building if time and opportunity allow. Reference Words: broad vision, ample sunlight, in the event of, to offer sb. more chances of survival, to have no option but to stay at the mercy of fate, in case of key 返回

  11. Back I. Pre-reading Activities: Listen, Look & Say 1. What is your insight into earthquakes? key 2. How much do you know about other natural disasters? key Video watching Directions: Watch the video and then discuss the topics as follows:

  12. 返回

  13. Summary: Because they have no warning and allow people no time to react to them in an effective way. As described in the video, one second you live in this big beautiful city and ten seconds later it is flat. So on any scale of instant destructivity, few natural disasters can come close to earthquakes. At 11:43 A.M. on June 7, 1692, for example, an earthquake struck Port Royal, Jamaica. In the space of less than fifty seconds, that thriving port sank into the Caribbean. An eyewitness described the scene. “ In many places the earth cracked, opened and shut, with a motion quick and fast. People were swallowed up; in others they were caught by the middle, and pressed to death.” In the 17th and 18th centuries, it was believed in the Western world that because earthquakes normally occurred in non-Christian countries, they were signs of God’s anger with the inhabitants of these areas. In fact, every day the earth is shaken by hundreds of small earthquakes, most going unnoticed. They usually occur along the boundaries of thin plates that cover the earth like egg shells. Driven by the heat deep within the earth’s core, plates grind against each other along lines called faults. When plates find their motions blocked, stress builds up. Finally the fault gives way. Released energy races through the earth in a form of seismic waves (震波) and a quake occurs. >>>more 返回 Path of thinking: • Why are earthquakes so unsettling and scaring? • How does an earthquake occur? key

  14. The contributors to these natural disasters are complex and varied. Some disasters such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions result from the movement of plates along the weaknesses in the Earth’s crust. Many others, like flood, sand storm, and the spread of desert, stem from human activities. Man’s mindless enthusiasm forunrestrained economic growth has led to a sharp decline of forestry, a rapid desertification of farming land, an irreparable depletion of ozone layer, a global worsening of greenhouse effect, and a swift extinction of species, all of which in turn bring about more disasters. Summary: In addition to the earthquake, the human society as a whole is also cursed with a long list of other natural disasters, among which are flood, mud-rock flow (泥石流), landslide (山体滑坡), typhoon, hurricane (飓风), tornado (龙卷风), snowstorm (暴风雪), hailstorm (冰雹), sand storm (沙尘暴), drought (干旱), plague of locusts (蝗灾), the spread of desert, the spread of infectious diseases such as SARS (非典), and volcanic eruptions (火山喷发), the most famous example of which is the Great Pompeii, quickly covered with volcanic ashes. 返回 >>>more Path of thinking: • Make a list of other natural disasters which affect the world. • What are the causes for these disasters? key

  15. II. Text Analysis: Main Idea and Devices for Developing It Main idea of the textand devices for developing it Main idea of each part and devices for developing it New words & Text Main idea Transcript Devices New Words 设问法 Part Ⅰ Part Ⅱ Text Part Ⅲ 演绎法 Part IV

  16. Back II. Text Analysis: Main Idea and Devices for Developing It • earthquake • detect • hen • pigeon • experimental • radon • wax • destruction • withstand • weld • joint • architect • column • accuracy • occurrence • resistant • precaution • Phrases and • Expressions • watch… for • come out of • after all • attach sth. • to sth. • in addition • (to) • at work • put out • turn off • agree on • be busy with • check in • make a • difference • Proper Names • Hanshin • horizontal • beam • vertical • pillar • rod • enclose • besides • cupboard • cabinet • fasten • gallon • bacterium • receiver • battery • spade • rope • extinguish • extinguisher • handy • auxiliary • portable • boot • fragment • chaos • sensible • crust

  17. Back How to Prepare for EarthquakesIdeally, people would like to know when an earthquake is going to happen and how bad it will be. In both Japan and China, people have long believed that earthquakes can be forecast. In Japan, scientists have wired the Earth and sea to detect movements. The Chinese have traditionally watched animals and plants for warning signs of earthquakes. For example, the Chinese have noted that before an earthquake, hens’ behavior changes — they refuse to enter their cages at night. They have also noticed that snakes come out of the ground to freeze to death and that dogs bark a the great destruction of property caused by earthquakes. After all, most of the people who die in earthquakes are killed by falling buildings. Therefore, building structures that can withstand the power of earthquakes is a major concern. Steel seems to be the best material, but not if it is welded to form a rigid earthquake. In addition to preparing their houses, people in these regions need to prepare themselves. They should have supplies of water and food at home and at work. It is best to store several gallons of water per person. It is also important to have something that can clean of equal strength, and vertical support columns are inserted deep into solid soil. In addition, many new houses have relatively light roofs and strong walls. Concrete pillars for highway bridges that previously only had steel rods inside are now enclosed in steel. Besides working to improve building lot, even normally quiet dogs. Before the Hanshin earthquake in Japan, there were reports of large schools of fish swimming near the surface of the water. Certain birds, like pigeons, also seemed to be especially noisy, and were reported to be flying in unusual patterns before the earthquake. Perhaps most Keep a fire extinguisherhandy. You should have one at home, at work, and in your car (if you have one). The fire extinguisher should be able to put out any type of fire. Have the proper tools to turn off gas and water lines if necessary. Arrange an auxiliary cooking and heating source that can be used outside. One Every family needs to have earthquake emergency plans. How will family members leave the area during the chaos following an earthquake? Everyone should agree on a meeting point outside of the area — perhaps in a town several miles away. Also important is an arrangement for family members to however, be possible to call outside the city. A sensible arrangement is to have all of the members of the family call to check in with a friend or relative who lives more than a hundred miles away. Although scientists still cannot predict earthquakes, they are learning a great deal However, even if prediction becomes possible, people who live in areas where earthquakes are a common occurrence will still have to do their best to prevent disasters by building structures that are resistant to ground movement and by being personally prepared. alternative is a portable camp stove with small cans of gas. Keep a pair of heavy, comfortable shoes or boots in your home, at work, and in your vehicle. If there is an earthquake, there will be lots of fragments of broken glass. Light shoes will not protect your feet as well as heavy shoes will. communicate if there is an earthquake. If an earthquake happens in a large city, many of the telephone lines within the city are likely to be down. The few remaining working lines will be busy with the calls that naturally occur after a disaster and it will be difficult to call from one part of the city to another. It might, structure. Many new structures are built with a new type of steel joint, an I-joint, which appears to be the most durable type of joint. These joints of steel can move without breaking. Also, to prevent property damage, architects now design buildings so that the building’s columns and horizontalbeams are interesting, and most easily measured, is a chemical change in ground water before a quake. Experimental data seem to indicate that the amount of radon (Rn) in the water under the surface of the Earth waxes before an earthquake. People would also like to be able to prevent These precautions can make a great difference in saving lives and preventing the loss of homes. Education concerning how to survive an earthquake should be a major emphasis for all government programs and earthquake-related research projects. about how the large plates in the earth’s crust move, the stresses between plates, how earthquakes work, and the general probability that a given place will have an earthquake. Someday soon it may actually become possible to predict earthquakes with accuracy. water and kill bacteria, so water from other sources can be made safe to drink. Store one week’s food for each person. Earthquake survival supplies include a radio receiver, a torch, extra batteries, first-aid supplies, a spade, a tent, some rope, and warm clothing. Experts also suggest the following: structures, people in areas where earthquakes are common need to prepare for the possibility of a great earthquake. They should regularly check and reinforce their homes, place heavy objects in low positions, attach cupboards and cabinets to walls, and fasten doors so that they will not open accidentally during an

  18. II. Text Analysis: Main Idea and Devices for Developing It Main idea of the text ? Devices for developing it? Back The essay is centered around the main theme — How to predict, prevent, and prepare for earthquakes. 设问法 演绎法

  19. For details Back • Questioning (设问法) • From the title “How to Prepare for Earthquakes”on, the author guides the reader toward a better understanding of his article through a list of direct or indirect questions, thus reminding the reader of what is to follow or what he is to give his ink to next.

  20. Questioning (设问法) Questions & Answers Back How to Prepare for Earthquakes (title) 1. When is an earthquake going to happen? (Para. 1) What questions does the title bring the reader? 2. How to prevent the great destruction of property caused by earthquakes? (Para. 2) Para. One is about some examples of how to predict earthquakes. Para. Two deals with how to make building structures so strong as to withstand the power of earthquakes. Paras. Three to Six are about how to prepare ourselves for the possibility of a great earthquake. 3. How to prepare for the possibility of a great earthquake? (Paras.3-6) 返回

  21. For details Back 2. Deduction (演绎法) Another characteristic writing technique that runs throughout the writing is a general statement supported by details.

  22. >>>more 2. Deduction (演绎法) Back Statement:Ideally, people would like to know when an earthquake is going to happen and how bad it will be. (Para. 1) Details: 1. Scientists have wired the Earth and sea to detect movements. 2. People have traditionally watched animals and plants for warning signs of earthquakes. 3. Experimental data show that the amount of radon in the water under the surface of the Earth waxes before an earthquake.

  23. >>>more 2. Deduction (演绎法) Back Statement: People would also like to be able to prevent the great destruction of property caused by earthquakes. (Para. 2) Details: 1. Many new structures are built with an I-joint, which appears to be the most durable type of joint. 2. Architects design buildings so that their columns and horizontal beams are of equal strength, and vertical support columns are inserted deep into solid soil. 3. Many new houses have relatively light roofs and strong walls. 4. Concrete pillars for highway bridges that previously only had steel rods inside are now enclosed in steel.

  24. >>>more 2. Deduction (演绎法) Back Statement:Besides working to improve building structures, people in areas where earthquakes are common need to prepare for the possibility of a great earthquake.(Paras. 3-6) Details: 4. Have earthquake emergency plans. Make arrangements in case of an earthquake for family members to leave the area in time, to meet at a place, to communicate with each other or to check in with a far-away friend. (Para. 6) 2. Have supplies of water and food at home and at work. Keep survival supplies such as a radio receiver, a torch, extra batteries, first-aid supplies, a spade, a tent, some rope, and warm clothing. (Para. 4) 3. Keep a fire extinguisher and some proper tools to turn off gas and water lines. Arrange an auxiliary cooking and heating source. Keep a pair of heavy shoes or boots to protect your feet. (Para. 5) 1. Regularly check and reinforce your homes, place heavy objects in low positions, attach cupboards and cabinets to walls, and fasten doors. (Para. 3)

  25. 2. Deduction (演绎法) Back Conclusion: Even if prediction becomes possible, people still have to do their best to prevent disasters by improving building structures and by being personally prepared. (Para. 7) 返回

  26. II. Text Analysis: Main Idea and Devices for Developing It Part I (Para. 1) Part II Part III Part IV For details Back Main idea ? This part is about how to predict an earthquake. Devices for developing it ? Exemplification (举例法)

  27. Back Exemplification (举例法) Topic sentence:Ideally, people would like to know when an earthquake is going to happen and how bad it will be. (Para. 1) Example 3: Before the Hanshin earthquake in Japan, there were reports of large schools of fish swimming near the surface of the water. Certain birds, like pigeons, also seemed to be especially noisy, and were reported to be flying in unusual patterns before the earthquake. Example 1: In Japan, scientists have wired the Earth and sea to detect movements. Example 2: The Chinese have traditionally watched animals and plants for warning signs of earthquakes. For example, the Chinese have noted that before an earthquake, hens’ behavior changes — they refuse to enter their cages at night. 返回

  28. Back II. Text Analysis: Main Idea and Devices for Developing It Part I Part II (Para. 2) Part III Part IV For details For details Main idea ? This part deals with how to prevent the great destruction of property caused by earthquakes. Devices for developing it ? Reasoning(推理法) Addition(递进法)

  29. Back Reasoning(推理法) Topic sentence:People would also like to be able to prevent the great destruction of property caused by earthquakes. (Para. 2) Reasoning: After all, most of the people who die in earthquakes are killed by falling buildings. Therefore, building structures that can withstand the power of earthquakes is a major concern. Steel seems to be the best material, but not if it is welded to form a rigid structure… 返回

  30. Back Addition(递进法) Topic sentence:People would also like to be able to prevent the great destruction of property caused by earthquakes. (Para. 2) Typical sentences for addition: 1. Also,to prevent property damage, architects now design buildings so that the building’s columns and horizontal beams are of equal strength, … (L. 24) 2. In addition, many new houses have relatively light roofs and strong walls. (L. 26) 返回

  31. Back II. Text Analysis: Main Idea and Devices for Developing It Part I Part II Part III (Paras. 3 - 6) For details Addition (递进法) Part IV Main idea? This part is about how people need to prepare themselves for the possibility of a great earthquake. Devices for developing it ?

  32. Back Addition (递进法) Topic:People in areas where earthquakes are common need to prepare for the possibility of a great earthquake. (Para. 3) Typical sentences for addition: 1. Besides working to improve building structures, people in areas where earthquakes are common need to prepare for the possibility of a great earthquake.(Para. 3) 4. Also important is an arrangement for family members to communicate if there is an earthquake. (Para. 6) 3. Experts also suggest the following: (The last sentence of Para. 4) (It is also important to have something that can clean water and kill bacteria, so water from other sources can be made safe to drink.(L. 36)) 2. In addition to preparing their houses, people in these regions need to prepare themselves.(Para. 4) 返回

  33. Back II. Text Analysis: Main Idea and Devices for Developing It Part I Part II Part III Part IV (Para. 7) For details Main idea? This part serves as a conclusion: even if prediction becomes possible in the future, people still have to do their best to prevent disasters by improving building structures and by being personally prepared. Devices for developing it ? Concession (让步法)

  34. Concession (让步法) Typical sentences for concession: 1. Although scientists still cannot predict earthquakes, they are learning a great deal about how the large plates in the earth’s crust move, the stresses between plates, how earthquakes work, and the general probability that a given place will have an earthquake. (L. 58) 2. However,even ifprediction becomes possible in the future, people still have to do their best to prevent disasters by improving building structures that are resistant to ground movement and by being personally prepared. (L. 61) Back 返回

  35. III. Expressions & Patterns Patterns for you to use as models Expressions 1.to watch sth. for… 2.to come out of 3.to be reported to do sth. in unusual patterns 4. to withstand the power of earthquakes >>>more 1.Typical patterns for reasoning 2.Typical patterns for further suggestion 3.Typical patterns for emphasis

  36. III. Expressions & Patterns Back A. Expressions: • to watch sth. for… • to come out of • to be reported to do sth. in unusual patterns • to withstand the power of earthquakes • to be a major concern • to insert sth. in / into • to enclose sth. in • to prepare for the possibility of • to attach sth. to • to make water safe to drink • to keep sth. handy 12. to put out 13. to agree on 14. to be busy with / doing sth. 15. to check in 16. to learn a great deal about 17. to predict earthquakes with accuracy 18. to be resistant to 19. to make a great difference in / to 20. education concerning how to do sth.

  37. III. Expressions & Patterns Back A. Compatible Expressions 1. 观察某物以获取······ / 小心等待 to watch sth. for… / to watch for(L. 4) 活学活用 他一直在等待着恰当的时机来表达对她的爱慕之情。 He has been watching for the right moment to express his feeling of love for her. 下一页 上一页

  38. III. Expressions & Patterns Back 2.爬出······ / 有······结果 to come out of(L. 6) 活学活用 你的好心自然会有好报。 Good reward will certainly come out of your good intention. 下一页 上一页

  39. III. Expressions & Patterns Back 3. 据报道说以异常的方式做某事 tobe reported to do sth. in unusual patterns(L. 9) 活学活用 据报道说他们在以不寻常的方式庆祝胜利。 They are reported to be celebrating their victory in unusual patterns. 下一页 上一页

  40. III. Expressions & Patterns Back 4.抵御地震的力量 to withstand the power of earthquakes(L. 18) 活学活用 经受不住艰难困苦考验的友谊不可能长久。 Any friendship that can’t withstand the trial of hardships is not likely to last long. 下一页 上一页

  41. III. Expressions & Patterns Back 5.是关注的重点  to be a major concern (L. 18) 活学活用 怎样防止非典的卷土重来(resurgence)是公众关注的重点之一。 How to prevent the resurgence of SARS is one of the major concerns among the public. 下一页 上一页

  42. III. Expressions & Patterns Back 6. 把某物插入······中/中间 • to insert sth. in / into / between (L. 26) 活学活用 麦氏公司(Maxwell House)在一家报纸上曾刊登了一则广告:滴滴香浓,意犹未尽。 The Maxwell House inserted in a newspaper an advertisement : Good to the last drop. 下一页 上一页

  43. III. Expressions & Patterns Back 7. 将某物包入/装入······ • to enclose sth. in … (L. 28) 活学活用 Enclosed in his letter was a birthday card, on which was a message —Turn my little card into white clouds that take my endless blessings to you. 他随信附上了一张生日贺卡,上面写着贺词——愿这小小的卡片化作朵朵白云,捎去我无尽的祝福。 下一页 上一页

  44. III. Expressions & Patterns Back 8. 为······的可能性作好防备  to prepare for the possibility of …(L. 30) 活学活用 大学生活的目的就是使我们为未来可能出现的挑战做好准备。 The purpose of college life is to prepare us for the possibility of future challenges. 下一页 上一页

  45. III. Expressions & Patterns Back 9. 把某物附加在 / 依附于 ······ 之上 toattach sth. to …(L. 31) 活学活用 她深深眷恋着与他共享过的美好时光。 She is fondly attached to the good old days she shared with him. 下一页 上一页

  46. III. Expressions & Patterns Back 10. 使水饮用安全 tomake water safe to drink(L. 37) 活学活用 对我们来说,重要的是如何使我们的校园生活过得有意义、有成效。 What matters to us is how to make our campus life meaningful and fruitful. 下一页 上一页

  47. III. Expressions & Patterns Back 11. 手边备有某物 to keep sth. handy (L. 41) 活学活用 同样重要的是,采取什么措施才能使我们的青少年远离毒品。 Also important is what measures to take to keep our teenagers far away from drugs. 下一页 上一页

  48. III. Expressions & Patterns Back 12. 扑灭 / 生产/投资 /发挥  toput out (L. 42) 活学活用 他演讲结束时呼吁大学生在大学学习期间发挥出全部的主观能动性。 His speech ended in an appeal to college students to put out all their subjective initiative during the course of college studies. 下一页 上一页

  49. III. Expressions & Patterns Back 13. 就······取得一致意见 to agree on (L. 49) 活学活用 不同的人对人生有不同的解释,很难取得一致的看法。 Different people attach different meanings to life, on which it is hard for them to agree. 下一页 上一页

  50. III. Expressions & Patterns Back 14. 忙于做某事  to be busy with / doing sth. (L. 53) 活学活用 贪官一旦被提拔到更高的职位,就会忙于滥用职权。 Once promoted to a higher position, a corrupt official will be busy abusing his power. 下一页 上一页