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The Appendicular Skeleton. THE SKELETAL SYSTEM The Appendicular Skeleton. 2 pairs of limbs and 2 girdles Pectoral (shoulder) girdle attaches upper limbs Pelvic (hip) girdle secures lower limbs 3-Segmented limbs Upper = arm Arm Forearm Hand Lower = leg Thigh Leg Foot.

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the skeletal system the appendicular skeleton
THE SKELETAL SYSTEMThe Appendicular Skeleton
  • 2 pairs of limbs and 2 girdles
  • Pectoral (shoulder) girdle attaches upper limbs
  • Pelvic (hip) girdle secures lower limbs
  • 3-Segmented limbs
    • Upper = arm
      • Arm
      • Forearm
      • Hand
    • Lower = leg
      • Thigh
      • Leg
      • Foot
pectoral girdle shoulder girdle
Pectoral Girdle(Shoulder Girdle)
  • Clavicle – anterior: collar bone
    • Sternal end attaches to the manubrium medially
    • Acromial end articulates with the scapula laterally
  • Scapula – posterior: shoulder blade
scapula
Scapula
  • Glenoid cavity articulates with the humerus
  • Acromium articulates with clavicle
  • Coracoid process projects anteriorly
upper extremity
Upper extremity
  • Arm or Brachium = upper arm
    • Between shoulder and elbow (humerus)
  • Forearm or Antebrachium
    • Radius & ulna
  • Hand includes:
    • Wrist (carpus)
    • Palm (metacarpus)
    • Fingers (phalanges)
slide7
Arm
  • Humerus is the only bone
  • Head of humerus fits into glenoid cavity of scapula
  • Distal & medially, trochlea articulates with the ulna
  • Distal & laterally capitulum articulates with the radius
  • Medial & lateral epicondyles
forearm

Radius is thinner proximally, like a spool of thread, and wide distally; ulna is slightly longer and looks like a monkey wrench (supposedly!)

Forearm
  • 2 bones: articulate with each other proximally and distally
  • Interosseous membrane between them
  • Ulna
    • Olecranon hinges with the humerus forming elbow
    • Styloid process distally
  • Radius
    • Contributes to wrist joint
    • Styloid process anchors a ligament to wrist (thumb side)
slide13

Left forearm

In the anatomical position, the radius is lateral (thumb side); with pronation the palm faces posteriorly and the bones cross

Prone: body lying face down

Suppine: body lying face up

Anatomical position

prone

(you can remember prone if you think about how you would fall forward onto your face if you passed out)

pronation moves the forearm into the prone position and supination moves it back to the anatomical position

slide15
Hand
  • Proximal is “wrist” – 8 carpal bones
  • Palm of hand - 5 metacarpals
  • Fingers (or digits) consist of miniature long bones called phalanges: thumb (“pollex”) has 2; fingers have 3: proximal, middle, distal

Right hand, 2 views:

pelvic girdle hip girdle
Pelvic Girdle (Hip Girdle)
  • Strongly attached to axial skeleton (sacrum)
  • Deep sockets
  • More stable than pectoral (shoulder) girdle
  • Less freedom of movement
  • Made up of the paired hip bones
    • “Bony pelvis” is basin-like structure: hip bones plus the axial sacrum and coccyx
ilium
Ilium

ilium

  • Iliac crest
  • Anterior superior iliac spine
  • Greater sciatic notch
  • Forms part of “acetabulum”

(hip socket) which receives ball-shaped head of femur

ilium

ischium
Ischium
  • Body
  • Ramus
  • Ischial spine
  • Ischial tuberosity
  • Part of socket

ischium

ischium

pubis
Pubis
  • Joins medially in pubic symphysis
  • Forms “obturator foramen” (large hole) with ischium
  • Part of socket

pubis

pubis

slide24

False (greater) and

true (lesser) pelvis

Ligaments

pelvis and childbearing
Pelvis and childbearing
  • Male/female differences
    • Large & heavy vs light & delicate
    • Heart shaped pelvic inlet vs oval
    • Narrow deep true pelvis vs wide & shallow
    • Narrow outlet vs wide
    • Less than 90 degree pubic arch vs more than 90 degree
  • Birth canal changes shape as baby descends: head turns ¼
    • Higher: pelvic inlet (brim) - side to side largest
    • Lower: pelvic outlet - largest in AP direction
lower limb
Lower limb
  • Thigh: femur
  • Leg (lower leg)
    • Tibia
    • Fibula
  • Foot
thigh
Thigh
  • Femur is largest, longest and strongest bone in the body
  • Head fits in socket (acetabulum) of pelvis
  • Neck is weakest
  • Greater trochanter
  • Distal: lateral & medial condyles and epicondyles
  • Patella: sesmoid bone
slide30
Leg
  • Tibia: shin bone
    • Medial and lateral condyles
    • Tibial tuberosity
    • Distal medial malleolus (medial ankle)
  • Fibula
    • Distal lateral malleolus (lateral ankle)
  • Interosseous membrane
slide33
Foot
  • Tarsus: 7 tarsal bones
    • Talus: articulates with tibia and fibula anteriorly and calcaneus posteriorly
    • Calcaneus: heel bone
    • Smaller cuboid, navicular, and 3 cunieforms (medial, intermediate and lateral)
  • 5 metatarsals
  • 14 phalanges
    • Great toe is hallux