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The appendicular skeleton. Appendicular skelton + skeletal muscles= movement. Bones of the appendicular skeleton. 2 pectoral girdles Clavicles, scapulae 2 upper extremities Pelvic girdle Coxae (hip bones) 2 lower extremities. Some important external features of bones.

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the appendicular skeleton

The appendicular skeleton

Appendicular skelton + skeletal muscles= movement

bones of the appendicular skeleton
Bones of the appendicular skeleton
  • 2 pectoral girdles
    • Clavicles, scapulae
  • 2 upper extremities
  • Pelvic girdle
    • Coxae (hip bones)
  • 2 lower extremities
some important external features of bones
Some important external features of bones
  • Processes where tendons and ligaments attach
    • Trochanter, tuberosity- large and small
    • Tubercle- rounded
    • Crest- ridge
    • Spine- pointed
  • Processes formed at articulations
    • Head, condyle, facet
  • Depressions and openings
    • Fossa, sulcus, foramen, sinus
the clavicle
The clavicle
  • Joint between clavicle and sternum is only direct connection between axial skeleton, shoulder girdle
  • Easily fractured
scapula shoulder blade
Scapula (shoulder blade)
  • Glenoid cavity articulates with head of humerus to form shoulder joint
  • Acromion forms tip of shoulder; articulates with clavice
  • Coracoid process is an attachment site
upper limb
Upper limb
  • Arm (humerus)
    • Glenohumeral joint
    • Distal end articulates with radius and ulna
  • Forearm
    • Radius (lateral), ulna (medial)
    • Fibrous membrane connects the two
wrist and hand
Wrist and hand
  • 8 carpals, 5 metacarpals, 14 phalanges
  • Carpal tunnel formed by space between hamate and pisiform; scaphoid and trapezium
    • Median nerve and flexor tendons pass through it
pelvic girdle is much more massive than pectoral girdle
Pelvic girdle is much more massive than pectoral girdle
  • Pelvis: two coxae, sacrum, coccyx
  • Coxa formed by ileum, ischium and pubis
  • Obturator foramen is largest in skeleton
male and female pelves
Male and female pelves

wider

Female pelvis is lighter and shallower

Wider outlet

pectoral vs pelvic girdle
Pectoral vs pelvic girdle
  • Pectoral does not articulate directly with vertebrae
  • Pectoral girdle provides more mobility than strength
  • Pelvic girdle provides more strength than mobility
lower limb
Lower limb
  • Femur is longest, strongest, heaviest bone
    • Articulates with pelvis at acetabulum
    • Articulates with tibia and fibula at distal end
  • Tibia and fibula form lower leg
    • Fibula is attachment site; does not bear weight or help form knee joint
    • Fibrous membrane between the two
bones of ankle and foot
Bones of ankle and foot
  • Seven tarsals; talus articulates with tibia and fibula
  • Standing, most weight is supported by calcaneus
  • Muscles attached to calcaneus by Achilles tendon
  • Metatarsal bones carry the rest
arches of the foot
Arches of the foot
  • Longitudinal arch
    • Begins at calcaneus, extends to heads of metatarsals
  • Transverse arch
    • Formed by tarsals and bases of metatarsals
  • Normally ball of foot carries 40% of weight and heel 60%
bone and joint disorders
Bone and joint disorders
  • Bone structure and remodeling is affected by:
    • Age (osteopoenia)
    • Physical stress
    • Hormone levels
    • Rates of calcium and phosphate absorption and excretion
    • Genetic and environmental factors
diagnosing skeletal disorders
Diagnosing skeletal disorders
  • Limitation of movement
  • Joint involvement (mono-or polyarthritic?)
  • Inflammation
  • Sounds (bony crepitus)- grating sounds
  • Abnormal bone deposits around fractures or joints
  • Abnormal posture
congenital disorders
Congenital disorders
  • Osteogenesis imperfecta- lack of bone collagen fibers
  • Marfan’s syndrome- connective tissue disorder affects heart as well
  • Achondroplasia-epiphyseal plates are replaced by bone
  • Clubfoot(congenital talipes equinovarus) abnormal muscle development
  • Cleft palate
  • Spina bifida
infections
infections
  • Osteomyelitis usually caused by S. aureus
  • Paget’s disease apparently caused by virus
secondary disorders can also affect skeleton
Secondary disorders can also affect skeleton
  • Endocrine (giantism)
  • Autoimmune (rheumatoid arthitis)
  • Gout (digestive)
  • How do joints faciliate bone movement?