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The appendicular skeleton. Appendicular skelton + skeletal muscles= movement. Bones of the appendicular skeleton. 2 pectoral girdles Clavicles, scapulae 2 upper extremities Pelvic girdle Coxae (hip bones) 2 lower extremities. Some important external features of bones.

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The appendicular skeleton

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the appendicular skeleton

The appendicular skeleton

Appendicular skelton + skeletal muscles= movement

bones of the appendicular skeleton
Bones of the appendicular skeleton
  • 2 pectoral girdles
    • Clavicles, scapulae
  • 2 upper extremities
  • Pelvic girdle
    • Coxae (hip bones)
  • 2 lower extremities
some important external features of bones
Some important external features of bones
  • Processes where tendons and ligaments attach
    • Trochanter, tuberosity- large and small
    • Tubercle- rounded
    • Crest- ridge
    • Spine- pointed
  • Processes formed at articulations
    • Head, condyle, facet
  • Depressions and openings
    • Fossa, sulcus, foramen, sinus
the clavicle
The clavicle
  • Joint between clavicle and sternum is only direct connection between axial skeleton, shoulder girdle
  • Easily fractured
scapula shoulder blade
Scapula (shoulder blade)
  • Glenoid cavity articulates with head of humerus to form shoulder joint
  • Acromion forms tip of shoulder; articulates with clavice
  • Coracoid process is an attachment site
upper limb
Upper limb
  • Arm (humerus)
    • Glenohumeral joint
    • Distal end articulates with radius and ulna
  • Forearm
    • Radius (lateral), ulna (medial)
    • Fibrous membrane connects the two
wrist and hand
Wrist and hand
  • 8 carpals, 5 metacarpals, 14 phalanges
  • Carpal tunnel formed by space between hamate and pisiform; scaphoid and trapezium
    • Median nerve and flexor tendons pass through it
pelvic girdle is much more massive than pectoral girdle
Pelvic girdle is much more massive than pectoral girdle
  • Pelvis: two coxae, sacrum, coccyx
  • Coxa formed by ileum, ischium and pubis
  • Obturator foramen is largest in skeleton
male and female pelves
Male and female pelves


Female pelvis is lighter and shallower

Wider outlet

pectoral vs pelvic girdle
Pectoral vs pelvic girdle
  • Pectoral does not articulate directly with vertebrae
  • Pectoral girdle provides more mobility than strength
  • Pelvic girdle provides more strength than mobility
lower limb
Lower limb
  • Femur is longest, strongest, heaviest bone
    • Articulates with pelvis at acetabulum
    • Articulates with tibia and fibula at distal end
  • Tibia and fibula form lower leg
    • Fibula is attachment site; does not bear weight or help form knee joint
    • Fibrous membrane between the two
bones of ankle and foot
Bones of ankle and foot
  • Seven tarsals; talus articulates with tibia and fibula
  • Standing, most weight is supported by calcaneus
  • Muscles attached to calcaneus by Achilles tendon
  • Metatarsal bones carry the rest
arches of the foot
Arches of the foot
  • Longitudinal arch
    • Begins at calcaneus, extends to heads of metatarsals
  • Transverse arch
    • Formed by tarsals and bases of metatarsals
  • Normally ball of foot carries 40% of weight and heel 60%
bone and joint disorders
Bone and joint disorders
  • Bone structure and remodeling is affected by:
    • Age (osteopoenia)
    • Physical stress
    • Hormone levels
    • Rates of calcium and phosphate absorption and excretion
    • Genetic and environmental factors
diagnosing skeletal disorders
Diagnosing skeletal disorders
  • Limitation of movement
  • Joint involvement (mono-or polyarthritic?)
  • Inflammation
  • Sounds (bony crepitus)- grating sounds
  • Abnormal bone deposits around fractures or joints
  • Abnormal posture
congenital disorders
Congenital disorders
  • Osteogenesis imperfecta- lack of bone collagen fibers
  • Marfan’s syndrome- connective tissue disorder affects heart as well
  • Achondroplasia-epiphyseal plates are replaced by bone
  • Clubfoot(congenital talipes equinovarus) abnormal muscle development
  • Cleft palate
  • Spina bifida
  • Osteomyelitis usually caused by S. aureus
  • Paget’s disease apparently caused by virus
secondary disorders can also affect skeleton
Secondary disorders can also affect skeleton
  • Endocrine (giantism)
  • Autoimmune (rheumatoid arthitis)
  • Gout (digestive)
  • How do joints faciliate bone movement?