Lesson One. TSWBAT: CO 1. Identify causes of infectious diseases. CO 2. Describe four ways in which infectious disease are spread. LO 1. Using a graphic organizer to chart disease causing pathogens and the diseases they cause. Critical Vocabulary. Infectious Disease Microscopic Organism
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CO 1. Identify causes of infectious diseases.
CO 2. Describe four ways in which infectious disease are spread.
LO 1. Using a graphic organizer to chart disease causing pathogens
and the diseases they cause
Infectious Disease Microscopic Organism
Infectious disease are caused by organisms or viruses that enter and multiply within the human body. Most are so small that they can be seen only through a microscope. Organisms this small are called microorganisms. Microorganisms and viruses that cause disease are called pathogens. Pathogens can cause an infectious disease when they enter your body and multiply.
There are many kinds of pathogens. Bacteria are simple, single-celled microorganisms. Some bacteria injure cells by giving off poisons called toxins. Viruses, the smallest pathogens, can multiply only after entering living cells. Fungi, such as yeasts, molds, and mushrooms, grow best in warm, dark, moist areas. Protozoan, single-celled organisms that are much larger and more complex than bacteria, cause diseases such as malaria. Other pathogens include mites, lice, and certain worms.
Pathogens can spread through contact with an infected person; an infected animal; contaminated objects; or contaminated food, soil, or water.
Writing: Do you think most teens was their hands as much as they should? What do you think are some ways to encourage more frequent hand washing?
Examples of Diseases
Bacteria a. __________ b. tetanus
__________ c. ______
Virus d. __________ e. Common cold
__________ f. ____________
Fungi g. __________ h. athlete’s foot
__________ i. ___________
Protozoan j. __________ k. malaria
__________ l. ____________
1. Complete the table with details about different kinds of pathogens.
are spread by
2. Complete the concept map about how disease are spread.
Passing It On
Most infectious diseases are spread through direct or indirect contact with a person who has the disease. The common cold is spread in this way. The diagram on the next slide can give you an idea of how an infectious disease spread from one person to the next. Each box represents a person, and the lines connecting the boxes represent handshakes. For example, the person in Level A as you will see shook hands with both people in Level B.
1.If the person in Level A has an infectious disease that can be spread by
direct contact, how many people in Level E can trace their exposure back
to that person?____
2. How can people with colds avoid exposing others to the disease? ____
Relating Cause and Effect: Why do you think that communities boil their drinking water after a water line break?
CO 1. Identify the body’s physical and chemical defenses against infectious disease.
CO 2. Describe the inflammatory response.
CO 3. Summarize how the immune system works.
CO 4. Compare passive and active immunity.
LO 2. List the step-by-step process of the inflammatory response.
Mucous Membrane Inflammation
Phagocyte Immune system Lymphocyte
Immunity T-Cell B-Cell
Antibody Lymphatic system Immunization
Your body’s first line of defense against infectious disease includes both physical and chemical defenses that prevent pathogens from entering your body. Your skin, saliva and tears, and digestive system function as both physical and chemical barriers against pathogens. The openings into your body, such as your mouth, eyes, and nose, are covered by protective linings called mucous membranes. Mucous membranes secrete mucus and other substances that trap or attack pathogens. Cilia, hairlike structures that line the mucous membranes, catch and remove pathogens.
Inflammation is your body’s second line of defense against infection. Inflammation is your body’s general response to al kinds of injury, from cuts and scrapes to internal damage. When an area of the body is injured, blood, fluids, and white blood cells called phagocytes leak from enlarged vessels at the site of the injury. Theses substances destroy pathogens.
The immune system is your body’s third line of defense. The immune system fights disease by producing a separate set of weapons for each kind of pathogen it encounters. White blood cells called lymphocytes carry out most of the immune system’s functions. There are two types of lymphocytes.
Much of your immune system is contained within your lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is a network of vessels that collects fluid from your tissues and returns it to your bloodstream.
Immunity is your body’s ability to destroy pathogens that it has previously encountered before the pathogens can cause disease. There are two types of immunity.
Injections that cause you to become immune to a disease are called immunizations. The substance that is injected is called a vaccine.
Writing: For each of your responses, explain how your behavior could affect your chances of getting or spreading an infectious disease.
1. Compare the table about the body’s first line of defense against
Look at Figure four page 554. This micrograph shows a phagocyte (blue) attacking a bacteria (pink). Phagocytes kill pathogens by engulfing and then digesting them.
Passive Immunity Active Immunity
4. Compare passive and active immunity by completing the Venn
diagram. Write seminaries where the circles overlap, and differences on
the left and right sides.
The body has three lines of defenses to guard against infections.
Defending Against Infection Group Activity
The body uses three lines of defense to guard against infections;
physical and chemical defense systems, inflammation, and the immune
system. The three lines of defense can be abbreviated as follows:
P&C = physical and chemical defense system; INF = inflammation;
IMM = immune system.
With a partner, identify and discuss the line of defense used in the
infectious situations listed in the left column of the chart on the next
slide. Then fill in the right column of the chart using your own words.
A sample has been provided.
Applying Concepts: Name two physical defenses that would protect your body against pathogens that might be found in a swimming pool.
CO 1. Identify some diseases caused by bacteria and by viruses.
CO 2. Describe behaviors that can help you get healthy and stay healthy.
LO 3. Complete an outline with details about common infectious diseases to include symptoms, treatment, prevention, diagnoses and how they spread.
1. Complete the outline by adding details about common infectious diseases.
A. Strep throat D. Tuberculosis
1. Symptoms ___________ 1. Description ___________
2. Diagnosis ___________ 2. Spread by ____________
B. Lyme disease 3. Symptoms ___________
1. Spread by ___________ E. Treating bacterial diseases
2. Spread by ___________ 1. Treatment ____________
C. Bacterial meningitis
1. Description __________
2. Symptoms ___________
II Viral Diseases
A. The common cold D. Hepatitis
1. Description _________ 1. Description ________
2. Symptoms __________ 2. Symptoms ________
3. Spread by __________ 3. Types _____________
B. Influenza E. Treating viral disease
1. Description _________ 1. Treatment _________
2. Spread by __________
3. Symptoms __________
4. Prevention _________
C. Pneumonia ___________
1. People at risk ________
2. Description __________
Felicia got home from her after-school job, ate dinner, and sat down
to study. All of the sudden, she realized she had forgotten to take an
antibiotic tablet earlier that day. Her doctor had prescribed the
antibiotic for her strap throat. Should Felicia take two tablets now to
make up for the one she missed? Or should she just take one tablet now?
On the next slide is a prescription, answer the following questions for that prescription. Write these questions in your notebook.
1. What medicine has been prescribed?
2. What is the dosage?
3. How often should the person take the medicine?
4. Should this medicine be taken with meals?
5. Are there specific foods or fluids that should not be taken with this medicine?
6. Should the person stop taking the medicine as soon as symptoms of the illness disappear?
180 Woodward Dr
St. Charles, MO Dr. C. Chin
0060023 Date 05/14/07
123 Main St. Any town, US 11111
take one capsule by mouth three times daily
for ten days until all taken
Amoxicillin 500mg capsules
Qty 30 MFC Doug Maker, inc
No refills –Dr. Authorization required
Use before 05/14/08
A. the name and
C. Directions for how much
Medicine you should take
The dosage and how often to
Call Dr. immediately if you
experience severe vomiting
diarrhea, or skin rash
B. Number of
pills or capsules
Esparza’s Pharmacy ph (800) 555-5555
D. The expiration date
E. Special Warnings or
F. Warnings about side
Take on an empty
stomach 3 hrs before
or 2 hrs after meals
unless directed by Dr.
Relating Cause and Effect Children usually have more infectious diseases per year than adults. Why do you think this is so?
CO 1. Define the term emerging disease.
CO 2. Identify five reasons why diseases emerge.
LO 4. Using a graphic organizer list details about how disease emerge.
Writing:Should the United States be concerned about dengue fever? Explain
Factors Responsible for SCARS
SCARS is a freighting infectious disease that emerged in the early twenty-first century. At first, scientists had little idea about where the pathogen came from. And investigation followed, and by 2005, researchers felt confident that they understood how SCARS emerged.
Cases of SCARS first appeared in southern China in 2002. The illness usually begins with a high fever-over 100 degrees F. other symptoms include headache, body aches, and dry cough. A type of pneumonia can follow. The disease can be deadly. Researchers discovered that the SCARS virus is spread by close person-to-person contact. When an infected person coughs or sneezes, infected droplets spread through the air and can be breathed in by others. An infected person can also contaminate objects such as a doorknob.
Scientist found that SCARS emerged mainly because of close contact between humans and infected animals. Investigators in China discovered that the virus is widespread both in a type of bat and another wild mammal called civet. These animals were sold for food at markets in China and likely spread the virus to humans.
People became sick form SCARS in China and in other countries. For example, there were over 100 cases reported in Canada in 2003. There were also cases reported in the United States, though no deaths. The movement of disease from country to country was the result of international travel by people on business or vacation.
Predicting: If you were traveling from a country with high rates of yellow fever, you could not enter some other countries without proof of a yellow fever vaccination. Predict what might happen if vaccinations were not required.
19. A vaccine causes a person’s
immune system to produce anti-
bodies against the pathogen, as if
the person had actually been infected.
20. You can avoid contact with
pathogens, make sure that your immunizations are current, and choose healthful behaviors.