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LESSON ONE PowerPoint Presentation

LESSON ONE

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LESSON ONE

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  1. LESSON ONE • AMINISTRATION • COMPONENTS OF FITNESS • AEROBIC FITNESS • VO2 MAX • ENERGY SYSTEMS • ONSET OF BLOOD LACTIC ACID (OBLA)

  2. COMPONENTS OF FITNESS • CARDIORESPIRATORY ENDURANCE • MUSCULAR STRENGTH • MUSCULAR ENDURANCE • BODY COMPOSITION • FLEXIBILITY

  3. AEROBIC ACTIVITY • USES LARGE MUSCLE GROUPS • RHYTHMIC • CONTINUOUS/INTERVAL • RAISES HR TO TRAINING LEVEL • GREATER THAN 20 MINUTES

  4. OXYGEN CONSUMPTION VO2 MAX: THE MAX AMOUNT OF O2 THAT THE BODY IS ABLE TO UTILIZE PER MINUTE OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY • VO2 MAX IS CONSIDERED THE SINGLE, BEST INDICATOR OF A PERSONS LEVEL OF AEROBIC FITNESS • VO2 MAX OCCURS WHERE A FURTHER INCREASE IN WORK IS NOT ACCOMPANIED BY AN ADDITIONAL INCREASE IN O2 CONSUMPTION

  5. STROKE VOLUME sv • VOLUME OF BLOOD PUMPED PER BEAT

  6. CARDIAC OUTPUT • VOLUME OF BLOOD PUMPED PER MINUTE CO = HR X SV

  7. FICK PRINCIPLE • THE AMOUNT OF OXYGEN USED IS A FUNCTION OF HOW MUCH BLOOD IS SENT TO MUSCLE AND HOW MUCH O2 IS IN THE BLOOD (A-V) O2 DIFFERENCE FICK EQUATION: VO2 = CARDIAC X (A-V) 02 OUTPUT DIFFERENCE

  8. GAS TRANSPORTAND EXCHANGE DIFFUSION • OXYGEN • HEMOGLOBIN • CARBON DIOXIDE • CARBON MONOXIDE

  9. CHANGES IN OXYGEN TRANSPORT CAPACITY CAUSES: • LOSS OF BLOOD • LACK OF OXYGEN IN AIR • BLOCKADE OF Hb • ANEMIA

  10. SOURCES OF ENERGY • CARBOHYDRATE • FAT • PROTEIN ATP ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE

  11. ENERGY SYSTEMS • PHOSPHAGEN (ATP + CP) • ANAEROBIC GLYCOLYSIS • AEROBIC RESPIRATION • AEROBIC GLYCOLYSIS • BETA OXIDATION

  12. ATP + CP • CREATINE PHOSPHATE (CP): HIGH ENERGY COMPOUND • RAPID ENERGY PRODUCTION • OCCURS WITHOUT OXYGEN • IMMEDIATE ENERGY RESERVE • 30 SECONDS HIGH INTENSITY

  13. ANAEROBIC GLYCOLYSIS • SPLITTING OF GLUCOSE WITHOUT OXYGEN • BRIDGES THE GAP - BEGINNING OF EXERCISE • PRODUCES HIGH LACTIC ACID CONCENTRATIONS • 2-3 MINUTES OF INTENSE EXERCISE

  14. AEROBIC GLYCOLYSIS • BEGINS WITH GLUCOSE • FORMS PYRUVIC ACID • IN THE PRESENCE OF O2 PYRUVIC ACID IS METABOLIZED INTO CO2 AND H2O • KREBS CYCLE - CHEMICAL BREAKDOWN OF PYRUVIC ACID

  15. BETA OXIDATION • FAT METABOLISM • REQUIRES OXYGEN • LONG DURATION EXERCISE • LOWER INTENSITY

  16. SUBSTRATE UTILIZATION DEPENDENT ON 3 FACTORS: • INTENSITY/DURATION • STATE OF TRAINING • DIET

  17. O.B.L.A • LACTIC ACID ACCUMULATION • EXPRESSED AS A PERCENTAGE OF MAXIMAL O2 UPTAKE • NORMALLY OCCURS BETWEEN 55% AND 65% OF VO2 MAX • OCCURS AT 80% VO2 MAX IN HIGHLY TRAINED ATHLETES

  18. REMOVAL OF LACTIC ACID • OXIDATION TO CO2 AND H2O • LOSS IN URINE AND SWEAT • CONVERSION TO GLUCOSE OR GYCLOGEN

  19. OBLA “FACTS” • INTENSITY DEPENDENT • CAN BE TRAINED • CAN BE POSTPONED

  20. LESSON TWO • HEART RATE RESPONSE • HEART RATE MONITORS • MAX HEART RATE/RECOVERY RUN

  21. HEART RATE RESPONSE • HEART RATE AND OXYGEN UPTAKE HAVE A LINEAR RELATIONSHIP • HEART RATE IS CONSIDERED A GOOD WAY TO ESTIMATE EXERCISE INTENSITY.

  22. DETERMINING TRAINING HEART RATE • ESTIMATE MAXIMUM HR (MHR) 220 - AGE = MHR • DETERMINE HEART RATE RESERVE HRR = MHR - RESTING HEART RATE • TRAINING HEART RATE (THR) (____% X HRR) + RHR = THR

  23. RATE OF PERCEIVED EXERTION 6 7 VERY VERY LIGHT 8 9 VERY LIGHT 10 11 LIGHT 12 13 SOMEWHAT HEAVY 14 15 HEAVY 16 17 VERY HEAVY 18 19 VERY VERY HEAVY 20

  24. LESSON THREE • FACTORS AFFECTING AEROBIC EXERCISE • SHORT TERM RESPONSES • LONG TERM ADAPTATIONS

  25. FACTORS AFFECTING AEROBIC EXERCISE • MODE OF EXERCISE • HEREDITY • POTENTIAL FOR FITNESS • GENDER • AGE • BODY COMP0SITION • LEVEL OF ACTIVITY

  26. EXERCISE PRESCRIPTIONFITT PRINCIPLE FREQUENCY 3 - 5 TIMES PER WEEK INTENSITY 60%-90% OF MHR 12-14 RPE SCALE 50%-80% VO2 MAX TIME 20-30 MINUTES TYPE LARGE MUSCLE GROUPS RHYTHMIC CONTINUOUS

  27. SHORT TERM RESPONSES TO AEROBIC EXERCISE • INCREASE IN PULMONARY VENTILATION (RESPIRATION) • INCREASE IN HEART RATE • INCREASE IN STROKE VOLUME • INCREASE IN CARDIAC OUTPUT • INCREASE IN MUSCLE TEMPERATURE • INCREASE IN BLOOD FLOW TO HEART

  28. LONG TERM ADAPTATIONS TO AEROBIC EXERCISE • DECREASE IN RHR • LOWER HR AT A GIVEN WORKLOAD • DECREASE IN HR RECOVERY TIME • INCREASE NUMBER AND SIZE OF FUNCTIONAL CAPILLARIES • INCREASE IN CARDIAC OUTPUT • INCREASE IN STROKE VOLUME • INCREASE IN THE NUMBER AND SIZE OF MITACHONDRIA • INCREASE IN THE ABILITY TO MOBILIZE AND UTILIZE FAT • DECREASE IN BLOOD LIPIDS • DECREASE IN RESTING BLOOD PRESSURE

  29. LONG TERM ADAPTATIONS TO AEROBIC EXERCISE MUSCULOSKELATAL BENEFITS • INCREASED MUSCULAR STRENGTH • INCREASED CAPILLARY DENSITY IN MUSCLE • STRENGTHENING OF TENDONS, LIGAMENTS, AND JOINTS • COUNTERACTS OSTEOPOROSIS MISCELLANEOUS BENEFITS • ENHANCED TOLERANCE TO HEAT • RELEASE OF ENDORPHINES “RUNNERS HIGH”

  30. LESSON FOUR • AEROBIC FITNESS ASSESSMENT • EXERCISE PRESCRIPTION

  31. AEROBIC FITNESS ASSESSMENT VO2 MAX: THE MAX AMOUNT OF O2 THAT THE BODY IS ABLE TO UTILIZE PER MINUTE OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY • VO2 MAX IS CONSIDERED THE SINGLE, BEST INDICATOR OF A PERSONS LEVEL OF AEROBIC FITNESS • VO2 MAX OCCURS WHERE A FURTHER INCREASE IN WORK IS NOT ACCOMPANIED BY AN ADDITIONAL INCREASE IN O2 CONSUMPTION

  32. EXPRESSING VO2 • ABSOLUTE VO2/VO2 MAX: L/min • RELATIVE VO2/VO2 MAX: ml O2/Kg/min

  33. ASSESSING VO2 MAX MAXIMAL TEST: REQUIRES A PERSON TO EXERCISE TO EXHAUSTION SUBMAXIMAL TEST:MEASURES AN INDIVIDUALS RESPONSE AT SUBMAXIMAL EXERCISE. • VO2 MAX IS PREDICTED FROM EXERCISE HEART RATE FOR THE GIVEN SUBMAXIMAL EXERCISE

  34. ASSESSING VO2 MAX • LAB • FIELD • MAX • SUBMAX

  35. BENEFITS OF TESTING • ASSESSES STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES • PROVIDES BASELINE DATA • PROVIDES FEEDBACK • PROVIDES HEALTH ASSESSMENT • PROVIDES UNDERSTANDING

  36. TESTING WILL NOT • PREDICT FUTURE “GOLD MEDALISTS” • SIMULATE ACTUAL PHYSICAL DEMANDS OF SOME SPORTS

  37. 2 MILE RUN TEST MEN: VO2MAX = 99.7 - (3.35 X TIME) WOMEN: VO2MAX = 72.9 - (1.77 X TIME)

  38. PRINCIPLES OF EXERCISE • OVERLOAD • PROGRESSION • RECOVERY • SPECIFICITY • REGULARITY • VARIETY • BALANCE

  39. 3 PHASES OF AN AEROBIC EXERCISE PROGRAM • PREPARATORY PHASE • USUALLY LASTS 4-6 WEEKS • CONDITIONING PHASE • USUALLY LASTS 12-20 WEEKS • INTENSITY 70 - 80 HRR • DURATION/FREQUENCY INCREASED BY 10% PER WEEK • MAINTENANCE PHASE • BEGINS 6 MONTHS AFTER STARTING PROGRAM • CONTINUES FOR A LIFETIME

  40. PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF A WARM UP • INCREASE IN BODY TEMPERATURE • INCREASE IN BLOOD FLOW TO MUSCLES AND HEART • DECREASED MUSCLE CONTRACTION AND REFLEX TIME • DECREASES CHEMICAL REACTION TIME

  41. PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF A COOL DOWN • DECREASED LACTIC ACID LEVELS • PREVENTS BLOOD POOLING • STRETCHING WARM MUSCLES IMPROVES FLEXIBILITY • DECREASED CHANCES OF CARDIAC IRREGULARITIES

  42. EXERCISE ADHERENCE • FUN • CROSS-TRAINING • REGULARITY • PROPER EQUIPMENT • TRAINING PARTNER • SET GOALS • AVOID OVERTRAINING • KEEP A LOG • ASSESSMENTS • MONITOR HEALTH

  43. LESSON FIVE • FATIGUE • DELAYED ONSET OF MUSCLE SORENESS (DOMS) • CONTRAINDICATIONS • ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS • STADIUM STAIR CLIMBING

  44. MECHANISMS OF FATIGUE POSSIBLE CAUSES: • DECREASED ATP SUPPLY • INCREASE IN LACTIC ACID • DEHYDRATION • MOTIVATION • HYPERTHERMIA • DEPLETION OF GLYCOGEN • ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE

  45. POSSIBLE CAUSES OF MUSCLE SORENESS • ACUTE:LACK OF BLOOD FLOW (O2) AND GENERAL FATIGUE OF MUSCLES • DELAYED ONSET OF MUSCLE SORENESS (D.O.M.S.): • 12 HOURS AFTER EXERCISE • MAY LAST 2-4 DAYS • TEARS TO MUSCLE AND CONNECTIVE TISSUE • INCREASE FLUID RETENTION • MUSCLE SPASMS • NOT A SPRAIN OR INJURY • PREVENTION: WARM UP, START SLOW, COOL DOWN PROPERLY

  46. CONTRAINDICATIONS OF EXERCISE • RECENT HEART ATTACK • UNSTABLE ANGINA PECTORIS • ABNORMAL HEART ACTIVITY • PAIN IN CHEST, ARMS FOLLOWING ACTIVITY • DIZZINESS, LIGHT HEADINESS • LACK OF COORDINATION, CONFUSION, COLD SWEATING • ILLNESS, PARTICULARLY VIRAL INFECTIONS

  47. SYMPTOMS OF OVERTRAINING • MUSCLE SORENESS • HEADACHES, SORE THROAT, MILD COLD • IRRITABILITY • INSOMNIA • LACK OF INTEREST IN DAILY ACTIVITIES • LOSS OF APPETITE • SUDDEN DROP IN WEIGHT • CONSTIPATION OR DIARRHEA • SKIN ERUPTIONS • ABNORMALLY HIGH RHR

  48. RISK FACTORS • AGE • HEREDITY • GENDER • SMOKING • OBESITY • LACK OF EXERCISE • HIGH CHOLESTEROL • HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE • ABNORMAL EKG • STRESS • DIABETES

  49. EXERCISING IN THE COLD • DRESS IN LAYERS • AVOID PROFUSE SWEATING • AVOID WIND CHILL FACTOR • DRINK PLENTY OF WATER ____________________________ HYPOTHERMIA FROSTBITE

  50. MAJOR FORMS OF HEAT ILLNESS • HEAT CRAMPS: MUSCLE PAIN AND SPASM • HEAT EXHAUSTION: WEAK, RAPID PULSE, LOW BLOOD PRESSURE, HEADACHE, AND DIZZINESS • HEAT STROKE: CEASATION OF SWEATING, DRY, HOT SKIN AND VERY HIGH BODY TEMPERATURE - THE MOST SERIOUS AND COMPLEX HEAT PROBLEM