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Bell Ringer – 4/28/2014. What are the causes and consequences of a warming earth?. Unit 4: Climate and Climate Change. In this unit, we will learn: Earth’s biogeochemical cycles Water Carbon Phosphorous Nitrogen Causes and consequences of global warming

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bell ringer 4 28 2014
Bell Ringer – 4/28/2014
  • What are the causes and consequences of a warming earth?
unit 4 climate and climate change
Unit 4: Climate and Climate Change
  • In this unit, we will learn:
    • Earth’s biogeochemical cycles
      • Water
      • Carbon
      • Phosphorous
      • Nitrogen
    • Causes and consequences of global warming
      • Why and how the earth is always changing
  • Today we are looking at the Earth’s structure and how it affects what we experience on the surface
lesson 3 3 earth s spheres

Lesson 3.3 Earth’s Spheres

The movement of Earth’s plates has formed the deepest ocean trenches and the highest mountains.

spheres of function

Lesson 3.2 Systems in Environmental Science

Spheres of Function
  • Earth can be divided into spheres that are defined according to their location and function.
the geosphere

Lesson 3.3 Earth’s Spheres

The Geosphere
  • Rocks and minerals on and below Earth’s surface:
  • Crust: Thin, cool, rocky outer “skin”
  • Mantle: Very hot and mostly solid
  • Core: Outer core is molten metal, inner core is solid metal

Rock formation, Ouray National Wildlife Refuge, Utah

plate tectonics

Lesson 3.3 Earth’s Spheres

Plate Tectonics
  • Crust and mantle are divided into:
    • Lithosphere: Crust and uppermost mantle; divided into tectonic plates
    • Asthenosphere: Soft middle mantle; heated by outer core
    • Lower mantle: Solid rock

Volcano lava

  • Convection currents in the asthenosphere move tectonic plates.
  • Collisions and separations of the plates result in landforms.
tectonic plates

Lesson 3.3 Earth’s Spheres

Tectonic Plates
  • There are three major types of plate boundary:
    • Divergent
    • Transform
    • Convergent
divergent and transform plate boundaries

Lesson 3.3 Earth’s Spheres

Divergent and Transform Plate Boundaries
  • Divergent boundaries: Rising magma pushes plates apart.
  • Transform boundaries: Plates slip and grind alongside one another.

Divergent plate boundary

Transform plate boundary

convergent plate boundaries

Lesson 3.3 Earth’s Spheres

Convergent Plate Boundaries
  • Plates collide, causing one of two things to happen:
    • Subduction: One plate slides beneath another.
    • Mountain-building: Both plates are uplifted.
the biosphere and atmosphere

Lesson 3.3 Earth’s Spheres

The Biosphere and Atmosphere
  • Biosphere: The part of Earth in which living and nonliving things interact
  • Atmosphere: Contains the gases that organisms need, such as oxygen and nitrogen; keeps Earth warm enough to support life

Earth’s atmosphere, seen from space

the hydrosphere

Lesson 3.3 Earth’s Spheres

The Hydrosphere

Greenlaw Brook, Limestone, Maine

  • Consists of Earth’s water
  • Most of Earth’s water (97.5%) is salt water.
  • Only 0.5% of Earth’s water is unfrozen fresh water usable for drinking or irrigation.
  • Earth’s available fresh water includes surface water and ground water.

Did You Know?If it is depleted, groundwater can take hundreds or even thousands of years to recharge completely.

lesson 3 4 biogeochemical cycles

Lesson 3.4 Biogeochemical Cycles

A carbon atom in your body today may have been part of a blade of grass last year, or a dinosaur bone millions of years ago.

Fossilized bones in a Colorado dig.

nutrient cycling

Lesson 3.4 Biogeochemical Cycles

Nutrient Cycling
  • Matter cycles through the environment.
  • Matter can be transformed, but cannot be created or destroyed.
  • Nutrients, matter that organisms require for life process, circulate throughout the environment in biogeochemical cycles.

Did You Know?Organisms require several dozen nutrients, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and carbon, to survive.