Good Morning!Please complete the Bell Ringer:Questionnaire: My Question-Asking Skills
A Familiar Chinese StoryA poor man asked a wise man to give him a fish because his family was starving. But, the wise man refused. Instead he offered to teach the poor man to fish because then his family would be fed everyday, not just one day.
Paradigm Shift What the wise man offered the poor man was a paradigm shift- a different way to view his problem. This workshop will offer a paradigm shift in the approach to learning in your classroom.
Marzano’s Instructional Strategies That Affect Student Achievement • Identify similarities and differences -45% • Summarizing and note taking -34% • Reinforcing effort and providing recognition -29% • Homework and practice -28% • Nonlinguistic representations -27% • Cooperative learning -27% • Setting objectives and providing feedback -23% • Generating and testing hypotheses -23% • Questions, cues, and advanced organizers -22%
Generating and Testing HypothesesOne of the most powerful and analytic of cognitive operations.Anytime we use “if-then” reasoning, we enter the realm of generating and testing hypotheses.
Research & Theory By definition, the process of generating and testing hypotheses involves the application of knowledge.
Generalizations • Hypotheses generation and testing can be approached in a more inductive or deductive manner. • Teachers should ask students to clearly explain their hypotheses and conclusions.
The Struggling Student • needs to be exposed to a variety of tasks • needs models of correct English • should verbalize their hypotheses and conclusions • will develop oral and academic language • needs help with the vocabulary involved in an explanation
The Struggling Student • need multiple encounters with words they are discovering • should use pictorial representations for what they have seen • should list what they observed and draw conclusions • needs simple linguistic tasks
Types of Hypotheses • Deductive Thinking- is the process of using a general rule to make a prediction about a future action or events. • Inductive Thinking- is the process of drawing new conclusions based on information we know or are presented with
Inductive Approach Students first discover principles and then generate hypotheses based on these principles.
Deductive Approach • Students are first presented with principles and then asked to generate and test hypotheses based on the principles they have been taught. (This approach produces better results.)
Classroom Practice • Appropriate teaching strategies include:- Systems analysis- Problem solving opportunities- Historical investigations- Invention- Experimental inquiry- Decision making
Making Sure Students Can Explain Their Hypotheses and Their Conclusions • Provides students with templates for reporting their work • Provides sentence stems for students, especially for young students • Provide or develop with students rubrics
Create a Gadget Cooperative Learning Activity
Educational ResearchActivation of prior knowledge is critical to learning of all typesBackground knowledge can even influence what we perceiveCues, questions, and graphic organizers are techniques that call on students’ prior knowledge
Effective Questions Are… • Inspiring • Vehicles • Empowering • Productive
Research and Theory • Cues involve “hints” about what students are about to experience. • Questions perform about the same function. • Cueing and questioning are at the heart of classroom practice. • Cueing and questioning might account for as much as 80% of what occurs in a given classroom on a given day.
Generalizations • Cues, questions and advance organizer focus on what is important as opposed to what is unusual. • “Higher level” questions or advance organizers produce deeper learning than “lower level” questions or advance organizers. • “Waiting” briefly before accepting responses from students has the effect of increasing the depth of students’ answers. • Questions are effective before and after a learning experience.
Classroom Practice • Explicit Cues • Inferential questions • Analytical questions
Questioning Rules to Keep in Mind • Who? What? When? questions sometimes lead to dead ends. • Why? How? questions may be more fruitful. • When developing units/lessons/activities, generate at least two questions you want the students to be able to answer during or after the unit/lesson/activity is completed.
Question-Answer Patterns • Question-response-evaluation • Question-response-feedback • Student-organized interaction • Question-response-feedback and student-organized interaction have the most positive results with struggling students.
The Struggling Student… • Needs to be able to filter out unnecessary information • Will need to be provided tiered questions • Should be given wait time • Should be asked questions before a learning experience
Why Ask Questions? • Communication • Avoid mistakes • Improve study skills in school • Expand thinking and knowledge
The Language of Questioning The “ACTIVE QUESTIONING” process is most effective when teachers start teaching for questions instead of answers. Students need a knowledge base about the topic and a knowledge base about questioning.
Questioning: Active vs. Passive We teach kids to answer. We don’t teach them to question. Asking questions, not just answering them, is a life support skill, maybe even a survival skill. It is connected to decision making and problem solving.
Active vs. Passive According to J.T. Dillon, teachers ask 80 questions per hour compared to only 2 questions per hour from all the students combined. It is time to change that picture. It is time to teach kids how to ask question, not just to answer them.
PASSIVE Questions Are those Answered By the Student ACTIVE Questions Are Those Asked By the Student
“Skinny” Questions & “Fat” Questions • Skinny questions- basic recall, convergent, right-answer questions (ex. What is 2+2?) • Fat questions- complex, divergent, open-ended questions (ex. What are all the ways you can think of to say four?)
Questioning Makes the Difference • Differentiated questioning really is the foundation for good teaching and good learning. • Differentiated questioning will “stretchthe curriculum” so students have time to research and understand ideas. • Divergent questions allow for differentiated responses from students with special needs.
Most Popular Questions • Quantity – brainstorming/listing • Compare/Contrast- similarities and differences • Feelings/Opinions/Point of View/Personification- open door to motivation • What if…? or What would happen if…? • How come…?
Six Essential Reasons for Asking Questions • Curiosity or interest • Need for explanation • Basis for a decision • Dissatisfaction with a condition • Discrepancy between new information and what is known or believed • Need or desire to develop a new skill
The Best Advice • Model what we teach • Slow down! • Give students more time to respond (wait time & extended wait time- APL) • Stop answering ALL your own questions.
Advance Organizers • Are organizational frameworks presented in advance of lessons that emphasis the essential ideas in a lesson or unit • Focus student attention on the topic at hand that helps them draw connections between what they already know and the new knowledge to be learned
Research and Theory- Advance Organizers • Should focus on what is important as opposed to what is unusual • “Higher level” organizers produce deeper learning than “lower level” organizers • Are most useful with information that is not well organized • Different types produce different results
Classroom Practice • Expository Advance Organizers • Narrative Advance Organizers • Skimming as a Form of Advance Organizer • Graphics Advance Organizers
Classroom Recommendations • Use expository advance organizers because they describe the new content that will be introduced • Use narrative advance organizers to let students know what they are going to be learning in a story format • Use skimming before reading as a form of advance organizer • Teach students how to use graphic advance organizers
Conclusion Generating and Testing Hypotheses -involves applying knowledge to a specific situation -deductive thinking -inductive thinking Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers -help students use what they already know about a topic to learn new information
Cues give hints of what is to be learned. • Analytical and inferential questions help fill-in the gaps and provide a focus for learning. • Narrative advance organizers, expository advance organizers, skimming, and graphic organizers help students focus on important information by providing a mental set.
An Invitation… As you go back to your classrooms, We invite you To set aside any preconceived ideas, Open your mind and your heart Put on your professional thinking cap, And explore the many ways to generate and test hypotheses, Utilize cues, questions, and advance organizers And “Catch the Questioning Bug”!