Bell Ringer • What were the 6 main countries to start World War II? (NOT the US) • What is appeasement? • Where is Ethiopia?
Bell Ringer • What is fascism? • What was the problem with the League of Nations in the 1930s? • What is blitzkrieg?
Bell Ringer • What was “cash and carry” during World War II? • Where did the US see its first fighting in Europe Theater? • What is V-E Day?
Bell Ringer • What three countries invaded beaches on D-Day? • What is Midway? • What is the Manhattan Project?
Origins of WWII • In World War II (WWII) the main countries will be • Britain, France, Russia, (& the USA) • Germany, Italy, & Japan • We will look at the government/leaders of some of these countries
Russia (Communism) • In 1917 the Russian Monarchy was overthrown creating a Bolshevik State (USSR) • In 1924 Joseph Stalin took control of the USSR as a totalitarian dictator. • Stalin attempted to modernize Russia and increase industrial production through five year plans • Millions would die in Russia through purges or starvation brought on by the five year plans
Italy (Fascism) • Italy felt largely insulted by their small role in creating the Treaty of Versailles • Benito Mussolini, a veteran, took advantage of this by creating a fascist party, or one that focused on extreme nationalism • Mussolini convinced the Italian people they could recreate the great Roman Empire • He would rise to the rank of Prime Minister and outlaw much of his Opposition
Germany (Nazis) • German felt insulted and devastated by the restrictions placed on Germany by the Treaty of Versailles • Hitler preached the idea that Germans and other Nordic people were ethnically & genetically superior to others (Aryan Race) • Hitler called for Lebensraum, or living space, for the German people in his book Mien Kampf • In 1934 he legally became both President and Chancellor of Germany
Japan • Japan was an isolationist nation until the US forced them to trade with the world in 1853 • In 1867 an uprising against the Shogun turned into a full out rebellion with the winners using “modern” weapons • The new Japan would launch a huge movement to industrialize and modernize. • They would be on the winning side of World War I, and would be the major Asian power
Britain, France, & USA • Britain • Still ruled a fairly large Empire around the world, wanted to avoid war and maintain economic stability • France • Suffered from political instability, and developed elaborate defenses against a possible German attack • USA • Had actively attempted to return to isolationism since WWI
The World • The world had been severely impacted by the Great Depression • Germany retook lands they had lost in T of V, and rebuilt their military to create jobs • Italy & Japan invaded other countries for natural resources • The League of Nations (without an Army) is forced to rely on member nations to enforce their rulings. • Britain and France don’t want to spend the money, and the Nations of Italy, Japan, and Germany are left to enforce the rules. (Japan will leave)
Situation Escalates • Hitler will begin to blatantly defy the Treaty of Versailles • 1936 Germany reoccupies the Rhineland • 1938 Germany annexes Austria (Anschluss) • 1938 Germany gains the Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia • Britain (Europe) employs a policy of appeasement. • Hitler promises this is the end of German expansion & PM Chamberlin announces “Peace in our time” • Hitler annexes the rest of Czechoslovakia 6 months later…
Meanwhile, in the USA • In 1935 Italy invaded the African nation of Ethiopia (used tanks, planes, & gas on tribes) • Since Italy had been a prime enforcer of the League of Nations the US is asked for help • The US says no, citing the Neutrality Act of 1935 which stopped the US from supplying nations in conflict with materials of warfare • The US would stay out of conflicts by signing neutrality acts in 36 & 37, but FDR would write letters to aggressor nations asking for peaceful resolutions to problems.
The Start of World War II • Germany annexation of Czechoslovakia put Britain and France on high alert. • Britain and France informed any more territorial expansion by him would result in war • Hitler & Stalin signed a non-aggression treaty in August 1939 (which also secretly split Poland in two) • September 1st Germany invaded Poland, September 3rd Britain & France declared war, & World War II had begun.
Blitzkrieg- Lightening War • One of Hitler’s main strategies during WWII was the Blitzkrieg • The German army would rush forward as quickly as possible with tanks, planes, and soldiers. • The speed of the attack often left enemies dazed and confused, and as a result was highly successful. • Poland would only last 16 days.
France falls • Hitler would quickly turn his attention to France after the fall of Poland (His non- aggression agreement with Stalin stood) • France had the majority of its army prepared near the German boarder, and the Germans invaded through Belgium (again) • In 1940 France, Belgium, Netherlands, Denmark, and Norway would all fall to the Germans
Britain stands alone • Britain was the last European Country to stand against Germany. • The Germans would relentlessly bomb Britain hoping to beat them into submission (The Blitz). Civilians fled to the country side, or hid in Tube tunnels • The Royal Air Force (RAF) would night after night fight the German attack, and hold off any possible invasion
Even though large tracts of Europe and many old and famous States have fallen or may fall into the grip of the Gestapo and all the odious apparatus of Nazi rule, we shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end. We shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be. We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender, and if, which I do not for a moment believe, this island or a large part of it were subjugated and starving, then our Empire beyond the seas, armed and guarded by the British Fleet, would carry on the struggle, until, in God's good time, the New World, with all its power and might, steps forth to the rescue and the liberation of the old.
Roosevelt to the Rescue • In 1939 Roosevelt would push a “modified” Neutrality act through Congress. • It contained a “cash & carry” clause: If a nation could pay for materials in cash AND carry it away in their own ships, then the US would sell them whatever they like. • In 1940 the US military started to remilitarize, but did not enter the war.
Lend-Lease • By 1940 Britain was nearly bankrupt, and FDR determined the US needed to “lend all aid short of war.” • The US Congress passed the Lend Lease Act after much debate. • The act authorized the president to transfer arms or any other defense materials for which Congress appropriated money to "the government of any country whose defense the President deems vital to the defense of the United States." (WITHOUT PAYING) • 1941 June- Hitler attacks Russia
Atlantic Charter • 1941 August- Churchill and FDR met on a war ship off the coast of Canada. • Here they developed the Atlantic Charter • They would not use war to expand their territory • All people should have the right to rule themselves • 1941 November- Congress allows US transport ships to arm themselves and sail to Europe
Pearl Harbor • 1940-1941: Japan had been conquering large portions of the Pacific in search of raw materials • The US attempted to curb Japanese aggression by Japanese enemies, and freezing their money in US banks • Dec 7 1941- Japan would launch a surprise attack on the US Naval Base located at Pearl Harbor Hawaii (2,400 dead, 1,200 wounded, 300 aircraft, 8 Battle Ships) • The next day FDR asked for Congress to declared war on Japan, they would (82-0 Senate, 388-1 House) • Dec 11 1941- Germany & Italy declared war on the US
European Theater 1942-45 • After the US enters WWII the war will drastically change. • Stalin wants the US to invade mainland France first (to take pressure off the Russians) • Churchill wants the US to invade Northern Africa to aid his troops • FDR would chose to invade Northern Africa because 1. US troops were inexperienced and 2. the logistics of transporting men from England to France were too risky
Northern Africa • The US will land in Northern Africa in Nov 1942. • Under the leadership of Dwight Eisenhower and George Patton the US would face and break the German forces in Northern Africa (Rommel) • 250,000 Axis Soldiers will be taken prisoner
Invasion of Italy • Northern Africa was used as a launching point into Italy (1943) • The invasion and a number of losses caused the Italian people to lose faith in Mussolini. The King was reinstated and Mussolini was removed from office • Mussolini was eventually executed by the Italian people
Attacking Germany • The US would employ its advanced air force against the Germans • The US would use precision bombing and saturation bombing • Precision bombing would destroy specific targets such as oil refineries, train yards, and factories • Saturation bombing would release a large number of bombs over a wide area (cities). This would leave the area bombed in rubble • Saturation bombing was INTENTED to kill a large number of civilians in an effort to break their will and make a country quit
Operation Overlord: D-Day • The invasion of France involved 1,200 warships, 800 transport ships, 4,000 landing crafts, 10,000 airplanes, & hundreds of tanks • The First wave had 156,000 soldiers • The Allies would land on 5 beaches • By the end of that day the Allies held the 59 mile landing area.
V-E Day • The D-Day invasion had caused the two front war that Hitler had feared • Hitler attempted to break the Allied lines one last time but failed (Battle of the Bulge) • The Russians pushed into Poland driving the German army to the breaking point • April 30th- Hitler commits suicide (FDR had died April 12th) • May 8th The Germans surrender and the allies celebrate Victory in Europe -> V-E Day
Note about the EOC • ***The Florida EOC tends to focus more on the Pacific Theater than the European. The reason for this is that the Pacific Theater was almost a TOTAL American Effort. While we were in Europe we had some help from the British, French, Russians, and other people. In saying this, it does not mean ignore Europe, it just means that militarily the stuff that has come up before cares slightly more about the Pacific.***
Pacific Theater: 1942-45 • The Americans fight in the Pacific almost completely alone. • The Russians “said” they would help but conveniently show up the day we dropped the 2nd nuclear bomb • General Douglas MacArthur led the US
Doolittle Raids • Many Americans incorrectly think that dropping the atomic bomb was revenge for Pearl Harbor- it wasn’t. • Pearl Harbor- December 7th 1941 • Atomic Bombs- August 6th & 9th 1945 • Doolittle Raids- April 18th 1942 • The Doolittle Raids sent long range bombers (B-25s) off of aircraft carriers to bomb Japan as a definitive 1st strike on the Japanese. • These raids were meant to show the Japanese that we could hit them whenever we wanted to.
Battle of Coral Sea • Shortly after the Doolittle Raids the Japanese were approaching Australia to strengthen their hold on the Pacific • The US fleet would come to their allies aid • May 4-8 1942- Battle of Coral Sea • The US turned back Japanese expansion in the South Pacific • The Battle of Coral Sea would be the first Naval battle where aircraft carriers fought, and neither sides SHIPS actually saw or fired on each other
Battle of Midway • The US had to figure out how to get to Japan in large numbers & stop Japanese expansion in the Pacific • The US intercepted and broke a Japanese transmission stating the Empires next target was the US island of Midway. • The US fleet waited for the Japanese to come and attack • The Japanese were looking for revenge from the Doolittle Raids
The Battle of Midway was a resounding victory for the US fleet. • The US destroyed all 4 Japanese Aircraft carriers, a cruiser, and 300 planes • The Japanese would never recover from their loss at Midway, and were forced to fight on the defensive for the rest of the War • This battle opened up the Pacific for the US Fleet
Island Hopping (Leapfrogging) • The Japanese held almost every island in the Pacific. • To retake each island would be a slow, costly, and difficult task. • The US determined that they could “leapfrog” heavily defended islands and claim a nearby, but less well defended, island • The end goal was to secure and island close enough to Japan to launch bomber attacks from
Defense in Depth • The counter the Island Hopping was the Japanese’s Defense in Depth • The Japanese acknowledged they could not defend every island the same as it would drain limit resources • Therefore they did not believe they could stop the American advance, but instead make it so slow and costly that the US would seek peace rather than victory. • Defense in Depth was used at the battles of Tarawa, Saipan, Peleliu, Iwo Jima, and Okinawa
Iwo Jima & Okinawa • By Aug 1944 the US had taken the Marianas Islands where they could launch long range bombing missions into Japan • For a realistic military invasion the US had to be much closed • The last two important islands were Iwo Jima and Okinawa • Iwo Jima- Emergency landing place for Bombers & base for escort fighter planes • Okinawa- 310 miles south of Japan and an ideal staging location
Iwo Jima • The US bombed Iwo Jima for 3 months before invading it (had little affect) • Feb 1945- Took a month to take the island • 6,800 American soldiers would die • 22,000 Japanese soldiers (almost all) died on Iwo Jima as they were given orders to fight till their death
Okinawa • April 1945 • Combined US & British effort • Battle lasted for 2 months, much of the combat was hand to hand • 12,000 Americans would die • 100,000 Japanese would died • Meanwhile Japanese aircrafts were flying directly into Allied ships, at tactic known as Kamikaze
The Manhattan Project • Securing Okinawa gave the US and Allies a base to launch an invasion of mainland Japan • HOWEVER, the fighting on Iwo Jima and Okinawa, combined with kamikaze pilots worried the Allied Generals. • There was a legitimate fear the Emperor would order ALL Japanese citizens to fight invaders till their death, and a very realistic belief that they would. • The US had developed another option though…