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---Bell-Ringer Question---. What do you think is the definition of Psychology? What do Psychologists do?. Introduction to Psychology. Module 1.

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bell ringer question
---Bell-Ringer Question---
  • What do you think is the definition of Psychology?
  • What do Psychologists do?

What is Psychology?From the Greek:Psyche: spirit or breath of lifeLogos: knowledge or study of The scientific study of behavior and mental processes-Is a philosophical science…It has its roots in philosophy..-Is a science…Has its roots in biology, medicine, and physics-Is systematic and scientific


What is Behavior?

Any action that others can

observe and measures:



–Physical movements


What are Mental Processes?

  • Emotion
    • Behavior or mental process
  • Feelings
  • Thoughts
  • Dreams
    • Brain waves or privates thoughts
  • Perception
  • Memories

What is memory and what does it

mean to remember something?

How are children able to learn an

average of 1 word per day from 1

year to 3 years of age?

A person suffers from epilepsy.

Doctors decide on a radical treatment and remove two small parts of patient’s brain. On a follow up,epilepsy is cleared up but patient

seems completely incapable of

forming new memories. Why?

Why does damage to the front of

your brain cause you to lose

the ability to plan ahead?


Becoming a Psychologist:Earn a Ph.D.(4-5 years graduate work + completion of major research project) Clinical psychologists also need 1 yr. internship & must pass licensing exam All psychologists specialize (subarea & approach) as they earn their degrees.

Other Degree Options:M.A. in Psych or Counseling or Social Work (takes ~2 years; more limited job opportunities) To become a psychiatrist you first attend medical school & earn your M.D., then specialize in clinical psych A psychoanalyst is a psychologist or psychiatrist with special training in Freud’s approach to the unconscious A variety of psychology-related jobs are available to those with a B.A. in Psych, as well as jobs where insight into behavior is a plus (sales, management, marketing, education, criminal justice, service jobs)

bell ringer question8
---Bell-Ringer Question---
  • Think of a ‘psychology’ related question that you would like to see answered at some point this semester and explain why (just a sentence or two)
  • Ex. Why do we dream or Do

Dreams have meanings?

-Because I have crazy dreams at

Night and don’t understand why!!


Sub fields in Psychology / Careers









Experimental or research






answer the following questions based on your assigned number answers can be found in the text
1. What does this kind of psychologist do?

2. What industries or careers would this psychologist work in?

3. What topics/phenomenon/behaviors would this psychologist be concerned with?

Answer the Following Questions Based on Your Assigned Number-Answers can be found in the text
bell ringer question11
---Bell-Ringer Question---
  • If you could choose a career to pursue in Psychology, which one would you choose?
    • You can use your books (starting pg. 9)
  • Explain why you chose the

career that you did.


Contemporary Theoretical Perspectives in Psychology

  • 1. Behavioral Approach
  • 2. Biological Approach
  • 3. Cognitive Approach
  • 4. Humanistic Approach
  • 5. Psychoanalytic / Psychodynamic Approach
  • Sociocultural Approach
        • +Each Approach Studies Behaviors and Mental Processes from Different Angles
behavioral approach
Behavioral Approach
  • Goal: To study onlyobservablebehavior and explain it via learning. Behaviorists focused on how behaviors are learned and modified.
  • Seeks to explain how we learn from observable responses. The basis of behavioral psychology suggests that all behaviors are learned.
biological approach
Biological Approach
  • Focuses on the physical and biological causes of human behavior.
  • Believe it is important that psychologists should study the biology behind behavior. This includes the human nervous system and brain.
  • The first basic belief of the biological perspective is that all behavior has a physiological root, and is determined by biology.
  • The second belief is that a lot of human behavior patterns are based on genetics, because humans have evolved over long periods of time to exhibit behavior that is adapted to the external environment.
cognitive approach
Cognitive Approach
  • They focus on the way humans process information, looking at how we treat information that comes in to the person
  • Human behavior can be explained as ascientific processes
  • Our behavior can be explained as a series of responses to external stimuli
  • Behavior is controlled by our own thought processes, as opposed to genetic factors
humanistic approach
Humanistic Approach
  • The focus of the humanistic perspective is on the self, which translates into "YOU", and "your" perception of "your" experiences. This view argues that you are free to choose your own behavior, rather than reacting to environmental stimuli and reinforces.
  • Emphasizes that each individual has great freedom in directing his/her own future
  • Issues dealing with self-esteem and self-fulfillment
psychoanalytic psychodynamic approach
Psychoanalytic / Psychodynamic Approach
  • Our behavior and feelings are powerfully affected by unconscious motives.
  • Our behavior and feelings as adults (including psychological problems) are rooted in ourchildhood experiences.
  • tension between conscious reality and unconscious drives.
sociocultural approach
Sociocultural Approach
  • Behaviors are a result of our culture, gender, ethnicity, politics etc…
  • We are merely products of ourculture and society.

How will each Perspective view a response to the following scenario:

    • A person spills a sack of groceries-will a stranger help pick up the person’s groceries?
behavioral clinical perspective
Behavioral/Clinical Perspective


How we learn from observable responses.

How to best study, assess and treat troubled people.

  • Sample Issues
  • How do we learn to fear particular objects or situations?
  • What is the most effective way to alter certain behaviors
  • Helping Behavior: If we have witnessed or been rewarded
  • For helping behavior, we are more likely to help/
biological perspective
Biological Perspective


How the body and brain create emotions, memories,

and sensory experiences.

  • Sample Issues
  • How do evolution and heredity influence behavior?
  • How are messages transmitted within the body?
  • How is blood chemistry linked with moods and motives?
  • Helping Behavior: Brain chemistry controls the emotions
  • and thoughts that eventually produce helping behavior
cognitive perspective
Cognitive Perspective


How we process, store and retrieve information.

  • Sample Issues
  • How do we use info in remembering and reasoning? How much do infants “know” when they are born?
  • Helping Behavior: Our individual interpretations of an event affect how we respond.
humanistic perspective
Humanistic Perspective


A school of though that focuses on how healthy

People strive to reach their full potential.

  • Sample Issues
  • If our needs for nourishment and safety have been met,
  • we are more likely to feel we can reach out and help others.
psychodynamic perspective
Psychodynamic Perspective


How we are affected by unconscious drives and


  • Sample Issues
  • Freudian theories
  • Helping Behavior: Unresolved inner conflicts can affect
  • whether or not we will help others.
social cultural perspective
Social-Cultural Perspective


How behavior and thinking vary across situations

and cultures.

  • Sample Issues
  • How are we, as members of different races and
  • nationalities, alike as members of one human family?
  • How do we differ, as products of different social contexts?
  • Helping Behavior: If we come from a cultural background that values helping, we’re more likely to help. We are also more likely to help if we are in a comfortable situation, such as with a good friend.