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10 March 2014. Today’s Bell Ringer. This begins the next section of course material for the fourth quarter. The next test will not be until after we return from Spring Break on 10 April. That test will cover 13.1, 13.2, 14.1, 14.2, 14.3, 14.4, and 14.5

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slide1

10 March 2014

Today’s Bell Ringer

This begins the next section of course material

for the fourth quarter.

The next test will not be until after we return

from Spring Break on 10 April. That test will cover

13.1, 13.2, 14.1, 14.2, 14.3, 14.4, and 14.5

We will have a section on Human Impact, which is not in the text.

Define these words

Habitat –

Niche –

Predation –

Parasitism–

Invasive species –

Non-native species –

Biodiversity –

slide2

What are the scientific names of the green

and brown anole?

2. Which is the invasive species?

slide3

3. What happened to the native lizard’s niche?

4. What happened/will happen over time to our

local biodiversity?

5. Is this a model system for competition?

resource availability gives structure to a community
Resource availability gives structure to a community.
  • Species can share habitats and resources.
  • Competition occurs when two species use resources in the same way.
  • Competitive exclusion keeps two species from occupying the same niche.
a habitat differs from a niche
A habitat differs from a niche.
  • A habitat is all aspects of the area in which an organism lives.
    • biotic factors
    • abiotic factors
  • An ecological niche includes all of the factors that a species needs to survive, stay healthy, and reproduce.
    • food
    • abiotic conditions
    • behavior
slide8

One species is better suited to the niche and the other will either be pushed out or become extinct.

  • The niche will be divided.
  • The two species will further diverge.
  • Competitive exclusion has different outcomes.
slide9

Madagascar

South America

  • Ecological equivalents are species that occupy similar niches but live in different geographical regions.
competition and predation are two important ways in which organisms interact
Competition and predation are two important ways inwhich organisms interact.
  • Competition occurs when two organisms fight for thesame limited resource.
    • Intraspecificcompetition
    • Interspecificcompetition
slide13

Mutualism: both organisms benefit

  • There are three major types of symbiotic relationships.
slide14

Commensalism

Human Our eyelashes are home to tiny mites

that feast on oil secretions and dead skin. Without harming us, up to 20 mites may be living in one eyelash follicle.

Ø

Demodicids Eyelash mites find all they need to survive in the tiny follicles

of eyelashes. Magnified here 225 times, these creatures measure 0.4 mm in length and can be seen only with a microscope.

+

Ø

+

Organism is not affected

Organism benefits

  • There are three major types of symbiotic relationships.
  • Commensalism: one organism benefits, the other is unharmed
slide15

+

Braconid wasp

Braconid larvae feed on their host and release themselves shortly before reaching

the pupae stage of development.

+

Parasitism

_

Hornworm caterpillar

The host hornworm will eventually die as its organs are consumed

by wasp larvae.

_

Organism benefits

Organism is harmed

  • There are three major types of symbiotic relationships.
  • Parasitism: one organism benefits, the other is harmed

+

slide16

There are three major types of symbiotic relationships.

  • Parasitism meet their needs as ectoparasites (such as leeches) and endopaasites (such as hookworms)
slide17

11 March 2014

Today’s Bell Ringer

Define these words

Competition –

Population density –

Immigration –

Emigration –

Carrying capacity –

Limiting factors –

slide18

This species is highly invasive.[3] In its introduced range, it reaches exceptionally high population densities, is capable of expanding its range very quickly, and both outcompetes and consumes many species of native lizards.[4][5][6] The brown anole's introduction into the United States in the early 1970s[7]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brown_anole

5. Campbell, T.S. 2000. Analysis of the effects of an exotic lizard (Anolissagrei) on a native lizard (Anoliscarolinensis) in Florida, using islands as experimental units. PhD Thesis, Univ. of Tennessee.

6. Gerber, G.P. and Echternacht, A.C. 2000. Evidence for asymmetrical intraguild predation between native and introduced Anolis lizards. Oecologia 124: 599-607.

7. R.D. and Patti Bartlett (2013). "Choosing a Brown Anole"

PetPlacedot com. Retrieved 2013-01-16.

changes in a population s size are determined by immigration births emigration and deaths
Changes in a population’s size are determined by immigration, births, emigration, and deaths.
  • The size of a population is always changing.
  • Four factors affect the size of a population.
    • immigration
    • births
    • emigration
    • deaths
population growth is based on available resources
Population growth is based on available resources.
  • Exponential growth is a rapid population increase due to an abundance of resources.
slide22

A population crash is a dramatic decline in the size of a population over a short period of time.

  • Carrying capacity is the maximum number of individuals in a population that the environment can support.
ecological factors limit population growth
Ecological factors limit population growth.
  • A limiting factor is something that keeps the size of a population down.
  • Density-dependent limiting factors are affected by the number of individuals in a given area.
slide24
Density-dependent limiting factors are affected by the number of individuals in a given area.
  • predation
  • competition
  • parasitism and disease
slide25
Density-independent limiting factors limit a population’s growth regardless of the density.
  • unusual weather
  • natural disasters
  • human activities
slide28

For March 12 – Study Guide work

Do pages:

133 & 134

135 & 136

145 & 146

slide29

13 March 2014

Today’s Bell Ringer

  • What happens to the landscape (a forest) after a volcanic eruption or massive, destructive fire?
  • Which plants come back first?
  • Why?
  • If the catastrophic event happens again, will the same plants come back in the same way?
  • Work in groups of two or three to answer these questions.

Define these words

Succession –

Pioneer species –

Climax Community –

succession occurs following a disturbance in an ecosystem
Succession occurs following a disturbance in an ecosystem.
  • Succession regenerates or creates a community after a disturbance.
    • a sequence of biotic changes
    • damaged communities are regenerated
    • new communities arise in previously uninhabited areas
slide31

primary succession — started by pioneer species

  • There are two types of succession.
slide33

Review of vocab words for today

Succession –

Pioneer species –

Climax Community –

slide34

14 March 2014

Today’s Bell Ringer

Guest speaker

Ms. Elliott – University of Central Florida.

Topic: Human Impact

– Extra Credit opportunity –

Go to http://donspence.wikispaces.comto find the questions related to her talk. Then, log into http://turnitin.com and submit your questions by 8 AM on Monday, 17 March.

Watch COSMOS – Last week’s full episode.

Sunday, 9 PM on FOX

http://www.fox.com/watch/183733315515

slide35

Extra Credit Questions:

Log onto http://turnitin.com

All answers must be thorough and in proper grammatical form. The answers all together should be at least 600 words.

In ways did Ms. Elliott’s presentation tie in with our recentchapter course material?

Were there any new words or concepts that that had not been discussed in Dr. Spence’s class? Describe the concept as best as you remember it.

Describe three reasons why non-native, invasive species are a problem for society?

From an ecological topic aspect, what did you find the most interesting about her talk? If the answer is ‘none’ then explain why ecological studies are of little use.

slide36

31 March 2014

Today’s Bell Ringer

– Welcome Back –

Review mock EOC exam

slide37

2 April 2014

Today’s Bell Ringer

Human Impact

Chapter 16

Renewable resources –

Non-renewable resources –

Pollution –

Smog –

Acid Rain –

Greenhouse effect –

Global warming –

Fossil fuels –

Indicator species –

Biomagnification –

Bioaccumulation –

Habitat Fragmentation –

Sustainability –

earth s human population continues to grow
Earth’s human population continues to grow.
  • Earth’s human carrying capacity is unknown.
slide40
Technology has helped to increase Earth’s carrying capacity.
  • gas-powered farm equipment
  • medical advancements
the growing human population exerts pressure on earth s natural resources
The growing human population exerts pressure on Earth’s natural resources.
  • Nonrenewable resources are used faster than they form.
    • coal
    • oil
slide44

wind

  • water
  • sunlight
  • Renewable resources cannot be used up or can replenish themselves over time.
  • Growing use of nonrenewable resources may lead to a crisis.
  • Resources must be properly managed.
effective management of earth s resources will help meet the needs of the future
Effective management of Earth’s resources will help meet the needs of the future.
  • Earth’s resources must be used responsibly.
  • Careless use of resources makes them unavailable to future generations.
  • Easter Island isan example ofirresponsibleresource use.
slide48
An ecological footprint is the amount of land needed to support a person.
  • The land must produce and maintain enough
    • food and water
    • shelter
    • energy
    • waste
slide49

amount and efficiency of resource use

  • amount and toxicity of waste produced
  • Several factors affect the size of the ecological footprint.
slide50

3 April 2014

Today’s Bell Ringer

Human Impact

and the

Geophysical world around us

On a sheet of paper, write a brief explanation stating your understanding of these concepts.

- do not use your book

1- Ozone depletion

2- Global warming

3- What things do you use that are dependent on

energy? List a few. Which is the most energy

demanding?

slide52

Is this a true statement?

Global warming = Greenhouse effect

Why or why not?

slide54

http://www.climate-change-knowledge.org/uploads/global-warming_visusal.jpghttp://www.climate-change-knowledge.org/uploads/global-warming_visusal.jpg

slide56

College of Marine & Earth Studies

University of Delaware

http://co2.cms.udel.edu/Climate_Change.htm

slide57

Global CO2 Emissions

http://www.eoearth.org/view/article/150926/

slide58

http://words.mixedbredie.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/carbon-footprint.jpghttp://words.mixedbredie.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/carbon-footprint.jpg

slide60

Bhutan

“Everything You Own In A Photo: A Look At Our Worldly Possessions”

by MITO HABE-EVANS

NPR.ORG August 10, 2010

slide63

Investigative Questions for your topics.

Use the vocabulary words from yesterday

1. Is your topic a global or local problem?

Explain why it is global or local.

2. Describe how this topic became a problem for people.

(what happened to get to this condition)

3. If there is a negative effect on people, what is it? And, predict what will happen in relation to people in the decades to come.

4. Describe and explain what things can be done to alleviate the problem (describe and explain at least 3).

5. List at least three sources that your group used to answer these

questions.

slide64

7 April 2014

Today’s Bell Ringer

List the ways in which biotic and abiotic factors regulate the food web

below.

Using the vocab (resources, waste,

Pollution, biodiversity and conservation)

Write a scenario where sustainable

development is possible over the next

decade.

water pollution affects ecosystems
Water pollution affects ecosystems.
  • Pollution can put entire freshwater ecosystems at risk.
slide66

amphibians

  • top predators
  • Indicator species provide a sign of an ecosystem’s health.
biomagnification causes accumulation of toxins in the food chain
Biomagnification causes accumulation of toxins in the food chain.
  • Pollutants can move up the food chain.
    • predators eat contaminated prey
    • pollution accumulates at each stage of the food chain
  • Top consumers, including humans, are most affected.
preserving biodiversity is important to the future of the biosphere
Preserving biodiversity is important to the future of the biosphere.
  • The loss of biodiversity has long-term effects.
    • loss of medical and technological advances
    • extinction of species
    • loss of ecosystem stability
loss of habitat eliminates species
Loss of habitat eliminates species.
  • Habitat fragmentation prevents an organism from
  • accessing its entire home range.
    • occurs when a barrier forms within the habitat
    • often caused by human development
slide71

corridors can be road overpasses or underpasses

  • allow species to move between different areas of habitat
  • Habitat corridors are a solution to the problem.
slide72

Burmese python (Florida Everglades)

  • Invasive species often push out native species.
slide73

kudzu (southeastern United States)

  • Invasive species often push out native species.
slide74

Global fisheries have adopted several sustainable practices.

    • rotation of catches
    • fishing gear review
    • harvest reduction
    • fishing bans
  • The timber industry has started to adopt sustainable practices.
slide75

Thursday’s test will cover:

Chapter 13.1, 13.2, all of 14, and 16

Can you answer these questions:

Page 423, questions 10, 12 & 14

Page 424, questions 23, 25, 26, & 29

Page 451, questions 13, 17, 20, & 22

Page 452, questions 24, 28 & 29

Page 509, questions 11, 13, 15, 16 & 17

Page 510, questions 22, 24, & 30

slide76

Study Guide work that should have been completed

Do pages:

133 & 134

135 & 136

145 & 146

Study Guide work for 8 April

Do pages:

151 & 152

153 & 154, questions 1 & 5

165, questions 1 & 2

167, questions 4 & 5

169, question 1

171, questions 4 & 5

174, question 9 – Please develop a comprehensive answer for this question with the people sitting next to you. At the end of class, each group will share their visions of the future. Your answers must include how to manage transportation, energy use, habitat fragmentation and population growth.

YOUR ANSWER HAS TO START WITH THE EARTH AS IT IS TODAY.

HOW SHOULD WE MOVE FORWARD?

slide77

1) Which type of organism is not shown in this food web?

Producer

Consumer

Herbivore

Decomposer

2) Place the following words in the proper order:

Ecosystem, organism, biome, community, population

slide78

3) A long-term study of a frogs species showed that they had

been recorded for 50 years with thousands of individuals.

Over a period of three years, the frogs disappeared, however,

surveys revealed paw prints of some type of feline previously

unknown to the area. What likely happened to the frogs?

Extinction

Predation

Parasitism

Mortality from disease

slide79

The Brain

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kMKc8nfPATI&list=TL4F-kfWX7_OsbaRx0PI9b4tjVYKltvjIq