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  1. Chapter 6 Biomes

  2. Biomes Biome A large region with a specific type of climate and a certain type plant and animal communities Made up of several ecosystems

  3. Biomes

  4. Biomes Biomes are classified based on the types of plants that live there The types of plants will determine the other organisms Organisms in each biome have specific adaptations that allow them to survive Adaptations include size, shape, and color

  5. Biomes Organisms are adapted to survive a very small range of temperatures and precipitation Small changes the temperature or the amount of precipitation can kill off a majority of organisms Since organisms can only survive in specific conditions the biggest factor that affects biomes is climate

  6. Biomes

  7. Biomes The climate around the world varies depending on altitude and latitude Altitude Height above sea level Latitude Distance north or south of the equator “Lat lays Flat” You can find the same climates by either going up a mountain or by going north

  8. Biomes Since climate depends on altitude and latitude, the type of biome depends on the same things You can find the same biomes, by either going up a mountain or going north “Altitude Substitutes for Latitude”

  9. Biomes

  10. F:\Seagate Sync\VOL\My Documents\Ecology\United Streaming\Biomes__Our_Earth_s_Major_Life_Zones.asf

  11. Forest Biomes Forest Biomes are the most widespread and diverse of all biomes. They are typically found in areas where there is more precipitation Big trees need a lot of water! Three main types: Tropical, Temperate, Taiga end

  12. Forest Biomes- Tropical Located near the equator Constant high temperature and lots of rain throughout the year Direct sunlight all year and very humid 100x’s more species per acre as temperate forests end

  13. Forest Biomes- Tropical The soil has very few nutrients As dead organisms decompose, the nutrients are immediately sucked up by the plants Most nutrients are stored in the plants This makes the water run-off as pure as distilled water from a store When the trees are cut down for farmland, the soil can only support crops for a few years end

  14. Forest Biomes- Tropical Because the soil is so thin, trees have nothing to hold on to The have adapted structures called buttresses to add support Roots that are above ground Buttresses end

  15. Forest Biomes- Tropical There are 4 layers of forest: Emergent, Upper Canopy, Lower Canopy, Understory end

  16. Forest Biomes- Tropical Emergent Top layer The very tallest trees (~230 ft high) Gets direct sunlight Canopy Primary layer of the rain forest ~98 ft high Absorbs around 95% of the sunlight Most animals live in this layer Divided into upper and lower levels end

  17. Forest Biomes- Tropical Understory Shade loving trees and shrubs No more than ~11 ft high end

  18. Forest Biomes- Temperate Rain Cooler temperatures than a Tropical Rain Forest But still lost of precipitation Found in Washington State, Australia, and New Zealand Around the Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean keeps the temperature above freezing year-round end

  19. Forest Biomes- Temperate Deciduous Trees have broad, flat leaves Which are lost each fall Has a large change in seasons Very cold in the winter and very hot in the summer Most 1st world countries are in this biome! end

  20. Forest Biomes- Temperate Deciduous Plants grow for around half of the year And go dormant as the weather gets cold Animals will either hibernate or migrate during the winter We live in this biome! end

  21. Forest Biomes- Taiga (Boreal) Coniferous forest (trees with seed in cones) just below the arctic circle Canada, Northern Europe, Russia, China Winter lasts for 6 to 10 months With very little sunlight end

  22. Forest Biomes- Taiga (Boreal) • Plants have as little as 50 days to grow each year • Plants are adapted to retain water and shed snow • Most animals are only in the Taiga for the short summer • Those that stay either go underground to hibernate or camouflage themselves to survive the winter end

  23. Grasslands- Savanna • Found mostly in Africa, South America, India • Little precipitation (rain) throughout the year • The rain it gets comes all at one time • Fires during the dry season restore nutrients to the soil end

  24. Grasslands- Savanna • Plants must be able to survive long periods without water • Large horizontal root system • Leaves grow vertical to expose less area to the sun • Animals have a migratory life style • They follow the water • Give birth during the rainy season end

  25. Grasslands- Temperate Dominated by grasses with very few trees Hot summers and cold winters Less rain than a forest The most fertile soil of any biome This is the world’s farming land end

  26. Grasslands- Temperate • Often found near mountains • They keep the amount of rain low • Grasses form a layer of roots below the surface • Helps to survive drought and fire • Animals are adapted to being mostly herbivores • Have underground burrows to provide protection • Over farming can cause this biome to become like a desert • From soil erosion and depletion of nutrients end

  27. Chaparral Temperate woodland biome with broad leaf evergreen shrubs Found along the coast with Mediterranean climates end

  28. Chaparral • Mostly low-lying shrubs • They stay close to the ground • Have leathery leaves covered in oils that promote burning • The fire will kill off trees that are competing for nutrients • Can quickly regrow after a fire • Animals are camouflaged to blend in with the environment • Humans develop this land for coastal housing end

  29. Desert Areas with little to no rain and plant life Also have extreme temperatures (hot or cold) Often found near large mountain ranges Mountains block moisture in clouds end

  30. Desert • Plants have thick flesh with a waxy coating that helps to store water • Roots are found just below the surface and widespread • In severe drought, plants will die off and their seeds will go dormant until rainfall germinates them • Animals have thick scaly skin to prevent water loss • Most bury themselves underground to avoid the sunlight • They are only active at night (nocturnal) end

  31. Tundra Area above the Arctic Circle with long, cold winters and short cool summers Grasses, mosses/lichens, and herbs grow Below the small amount of topsoil is permafrost Permanently frozen soil end

  32. Tundra • Plants stay very close to the ground • Avoid the wind and get heat from the soil • Roots are just below the surface and widespread • Very few animals • Bird migrate in for the short summer • Some migrate through the tundra all year • Following food and water • With so few organisms the ecosystems are very simple • Any change to this biome can be a big threat to the ecosystems • The discovery of oil has influenced humans to develop end

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  35. Oil exploration in ANWR could have a negative impact on the animals and people living in and around the refuge, but oil in the refuge may help the US meet its future energy needs. Without knowing what the consequences or benefits will be, do you think that the US should permanently protect the ANWR or open it for oil exploration? end

  36. Aquatic Biomes • While climate determine the type of biome on land, in the water there are other factors to worry about • Climate (temperature, sunlight) • Oxygen • Nutrients • Salinity (amount of salt) • Based on the amount of salt, Aquatic Biomes are divided into Freshwater and Marine. end

  37. Aquatic Biomes- Lakes and Ponds • 2 layers: • Littoral Zone • Nutrient-rich, near the shore, diverse life • This is where the sunlight can reach • Benthic Zone • Bottom of the pond, decomposers, dead organisms, clams • Very little sunlight end

  38. Aquatic Biomes- Lakes and Ponds If a lake has an increase in nutrients (eutrophication) Then more plants, algae, and bacteria start to grow This uses up the oxygen dissolved in the water No oxygen = No life end

  39. Aquatic Biomes- Freshwater Wetlands Areas of land covered with fresh water for part of the year 2 types: Marshes Contains Non-woody plants Swamps Contains woody plants (trees and shrubs) Originally thought to be “wastelands” We are now trying to fix the damage we have caused end

  40. Aquatic Biomes- Freshwater Wetlands Controls flooding Nature’s water filter- no more pollution! :-) Mating grounds for many animals end

  41. Aquatic Biomes- Rivers and Streams • Begin with melting snow from the mountains • Cold water with lots of oxygen • As you go down hill the water gets warmer with less oxygen • Different plants and animals are found along the river based on the temp and amount of oxygen • The biggest threat is runoff from industries end

  42. Aquatic Biomes- Coastal Wetlands Areas covered by salt water for part of the year Estuary Area where fresh water from a river mixes with salt water from the ocean Constantly is replenished with nutrients Making it a very productive biome (lots of organisms) Organisms have to be able to survive in a wide range of salt content (Very Little Salt to Lots of Salt) Have been used in the past as a waste dump Killing off lots of organisms end

  43. Coral Reefs Limestone ridges build by tiny coral animals Live in clear, warm salt water Extremely diverse organisms Many are in danger of destruction from humans Climate Change, Pollution, Over-Fishing end

  44. Oceans Most life concentrated in the shallow waters Sunlight only penetrates about 100 m (330 ft) Different organisms are found at certain depths depending on the amount of sunlight One of the least productive biomes Pollution and Over-Fishing are the biggest threats end