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Are You on Track with Your Training?

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  1. C Are You on Track with Your Training? Injury Prevention and Nutrition for Track Athletes Steven L. Cole, ATC, CSCS Director of Sports Medicine College of William and Mary www.wm.edu/sportsmedicine/coach.html

  2. Dan Stimson Alex Gibby Kathy Newberry Brian Cunningham Emil Davis Andy Gerard-Stanford University Walt Drenth-Arizona State Pat Van Rossum AcknowledgementSpecial Thanks for their guidance and “Team Approach” to the care of our student-athletes

  3. Objectives • Discuss various training tips to promote fitness and wellness • Identify common injuries & conditions that limit training • Review simple strengthening exercises for injury prevention • Review a progressive, functional based return to running program • Discuss various nutrition tips to promote fitness and recovery

  4. Principle of Transition • Injuries occur during transition • “Culprits & Victims” • “Round holes & Square pegs”

  5. Intrinsic Abnormalities • Malalignment • Muscle Imbalance • Inflexibility • Muscle Weakness • Instability

  6. Extrinsic Abnormalities • Equipment • Environment • Technique Training • Training Errors

  7. Training Errors • Surface selection: Softer better • Balance of Intensity and Volume • Volume without adequate recovery • Too high intensity for fear of volume • Technique: over striding • Work Ethic • “take care of the small things” • Patience

  8. Treatment Principle • Injury- specific management • Recognize & address the Psychological components • Prevention- addressing risk factors • Identify & manage

  9. Foam Roller Marbles Tennis & Golf Ball Theraband Frozen bottle of water Ice Cups Heart Rate monitor Night Splint Swiss Ball Lace Locks Water Bottle Tools and Tricks

  10. VCD Difficulty with getting air in Neck & Throat tightness Sawing sound EIA Difficulty with getting air out Chest tightness Whistling sound Vocal Cord Dysfunction vs Exercise Induced Asthma

  11. Vocal Cord Dysfunction Management • Proper diagnosis • Diaphramatic vs Clavicular breathing • In nose, out mouth • Choral director • Increased awareness of laryngeal tightness • Relaxation • “Right here, right now”

  12. Amenorrhea • Females below 13-17 % body fat • Decreased bone density • Osteoporosis • Evaluated and monitored by experienced physician

  13. Common Cold-URI • Fewer in those who exercise • Positive change in immune system • Caution: 90 minutes or longer of continuous exercise does suppress immune system • No exercise: Temp greater than 100 • Manage symptoms-virus • 7 to 10 days

  14. Prevention:URI • Rehydration & nutrition within 30 minute to 1 hr post workout • Fruit juice, garlic, zinc • Frequent Hand washing • Increased rest/sleep • afternoon nap • Intervene early/Isolate when sick

  15. Sleep • Critical role in restoring body • 8 to 9 hours of uninterrupted • Less than 6 hours, tax immune system • Lack of doesn’t hurt strength or endurance, but does performance • Poor quality sign of overtraining, dehyradration, stress

  16. Anemia • Decreased total RBC concentration • Athletes normally below “normal” levels • Athletic Pseudoanemia (Sport Anemia) • Iron level normal, baseline plasma volume expanded= decreased RBC concentration • Evaluation by experienced physician • Increase dietary iron intake

  17. Stress Fractures • Wolff’s Law • Increased strength in response to increased demand • Bone endures stress whenever force is loaded upon it • Shock of weight bearing • Pull of a muscle • Decreased blood flow to bone cortex leads to ischemia

  18. Stress Fracture Management • Prevent: weeks in the making before symptoms arise • Early intervention with activity modification • Fracture Boot • Non-weight bearing on crutches

  19. Return to Running • Progression of functional activity • Very structured, all timed • Pain & symptoms are to guide progression www.wm.edu/sportsmedicine/coach.html

  20. Return to Running • Phase I: Walking • 30 minutes, aggressive, pain free • Phase II: Plyometric Routine • Hopping, 470 foot contacts • Phase III: Walk/Jog progression • 5 minute/1 minute to 2 minute/4minute • Phase IV: Timed Running Schedule • Intermediate & Advanced • Mileage Schedule • Pain identification scale

  21. Blisters • Preventable: Decrease friction • “Soap and starch your socks” • Proper shoe fit • Clean, appropriate socks • 3 pair new socks with new shoes • Treat as an open wound, protect against infection

  22. Shoes • “When the shoe fits, wear it” • 250 miles, 505 of absorption lost: life: 350 miles • Feet larger in afternoon • Orthotics • Full length, off the shelf • Identify a need

  23. Strength Training • Work the Back side • Target the Core • Mix it up • High reps, 12-15, low wt • Low reps, 6-8, high wt • Multitask: compound movements

  24. Strengthen DorsiFlexors Hamstrings Abdominals/Core stability Mid/Upper Back/ Scapula stabilizer Stretch Heelcords Quads Lower Back Hip Rotators & Hip Flexors Chest Strength Training

  25. Stretching • Too much-increases instability • Injury management/resolution • Adequate, appropriate warm up & cool down • Static vs Dynamic • Move muscle & joint gently & progressively to point of slight tension, release & repeat

  26. Cycling Elliptical Swimming Aqua jogging Various activity, various workouts Cross Training

  27. Nutrition • Balanced Diet • Challenges • Poor planning • Lack of education • Disordered Eating • Diverse group of specialized athletes • Duration of event day/weekend • Event schedule, multiple participants

  28. The New Food Pyramidwww.cnpp.usda.gov/pyramid.html

  29. Recommendations

  30. Athletes Have Special Needs! Require More Nutrients Increase in Protein Increase in Carbohydrates Increase in Vitamins and Minerals Defining Sports Performance Nutrition

  31. Benefits of Proper Nutrition • Decreased time of recovery • Increased energy • Decreased loss of muscle tissue in-season • Increased stamina • Decreased percent body fat • Injury prevention • Improved health • IMPROVED PERFORMANCE!!

  32. Sport-specific nutrition • Explosive Athletes • Explosive strength and power is required on a sustained, repetitive basis. • Muscle glycogen is immediate energy source. • High protein requirements • Constant supply of carbohydrates to refuel bodies glycogen stores. • Total Caloric Ratio Need • 20% Fat • 25% Protein • 55% Carbohydrate

  33. Sport-specific nutrition • Endurance Athletes • Aerobic pathway is primary energy source. • Fatty acids & Muscle glycogen main fuels. • Moderate protein requirements • Constant supply of carbohydrates to refuel bodies glycogen stores. • Total Caloric Ratio Need • 20% Fat • 20% Protein • 60% Carbohydrate

  34. Carbohydrates • Limited storage capacity, must replenish • 600gm per day • Consume 30-60gms/hr continuous exercise • 20 hours to fully replenish • .05gms of CHO/lb body wt every 2 hrs • 150lbs=75gms every 2 hrs

  35. Carbohydrates rich Foods • ½ cup rice 25gms • ½ cup spaghetti 17gms • 4 oz orange juice 13gms • 1 slice wheat bread 11gms • ½ cup oatmeal 27gms • 1 cup corn flakes 24gms • 1 large banana 31gms

  36. Simple vs. Complex CHO Complex Carbohydrates • Are absorbed by the body slowly. • Digest & release glucose into bloodstream at slow & steady rate. Slow release of CHO into the bloodstream: • Regulates appetite. • Provides prolonged supply of CHO to the blood stream. • Provides a nutritional energy substrate which will further spare & replenish muscle & liver glycogen.

  37. Types of Complex Carbohydrates • Raw fibrous vegetables like broccoli, spinach, carrots, green beans, cucumbers, tomatoes. • Grains like oats, breads, bran cereals, pasta, rice. • Starchy vegetables like potatoes, corn, peas, beans

  38. Protein • Proteins are the building block of muscle. • Proteins spare muscle breakdown during exercise. • Protein is essential for maintenance, growth & recovery. • .05-.07gms/lb body wt • 150lb = 75-105gms/day

  39. 85-95% Lean ground beef, turkey, ham Beans & peas Skinless, grilled, baked, roasted chicken or turkey breast Seafood-steamed, boiled, baked or grilled Low-fat cottage cheese Cheese-2% or skim Milk-Skim or 2% White-tuna in water Trimmed steaks, lamb, pork chop Nuts or seeds Eggs or egg beaters Low-fat yogurt Turkey bacon or sausage Low Fat, Protein rich Foods

  40. Higher percentage utilized for energy during low intensity exercise Essential Fatty Acids required for growth, recovery & overall health Protective padding for organs Omega-3 fatty acids-increase stamina & been saturated fats more efficiently Sources: walnuts, cold water fish (salmon, trout, herring), crab, canola oil Fats

  41. Hydration • 2% drop in body water decreases performance • Check color of urine; thirst poor indicator • 16oz, 2 hrs prior: 4 to 8 oz every 15 minutes during • 16 oz for every pound lost during exercise • Sports drinks for electrolytes • Foods high in water content

  42. Water & Athletic Performance • Water replenishment is the most important factor during exercise. • Outside the narrow range of 98-100°F, your body will always sacrifice muscle function for temperature regulation. • Drink a minimum of 1 to 1.5 gallons/day. • Flushes out metabolic waste products • Maintains the bodies cooling system • Prevents muscle cramps, strains and pulls

  43. Water & Athletic Performance Dehydration equals: • Reduced endurance levels • Fatigue • Poor stamina • Reduced maximum recovery between workouts • Muscle cramps and joint pain Remember…thirst lags behind need!!!

  44. 1 lb sweat contains 400-700mg 1,800-5,600mg lost in 2-3 hrs exercise 2 slice Pizza 1,396 mg 1 cup Chicken noodle soup 1,107 mg 1 oz Pretzels 451 mg 1 cup Cheerios 290 mg Bagel 198 mg Gatorade 110 mg Electrolytes-Sodium

  45. 1 lb sweat contains 80-100milligrams 300-800mg lost in 2 –3 hrs exercise Potato 844mg Yogurt, 8 oz 530mg 8oz OJ 500mg Banana 450 mg Raisins, ¼ cup 283mg Orange 250mg Gatorade, 8 oz 30mg Electrolytes-Potassium

  46. 4oz Beef-liver-7mg 4oz Beef-steak-3mg 5 lg steamed clams-7.5mg 1 cup Raisin Bran cereal-24mg 1 cup Cream of Wheat-9mg 1 cup Cheerios-6.4mg 1 cup Wheat Chex-12 mg 1 cup Chick peas-13.8mg 1 cup Prune juice-9.8mg 1 cup Sunflower seeds-16mg 1 slice Watermelon-3 mg ½ cup Raisins-3 mg Iron

  47. Assist Vitamin C Fructose (fruit sugar) Fish Inhibit Coffee Tea Whole grains Legumes High Fiber intake Iron Absorption

  48. Free Radicals: negative impact on cells Regular exercise increases body’s antioxidant defense against free radicals Best nutritional sources: Fruits & Vegetables Beans: Red, Kidney, Pinto, Black Fruits: Blueberry, Cranberry, Blackberry, Raspberry, Strawberry, Prune, Apples, Plum Artichoke, Russet potato, pecans Antioxidants

  49. NO MAGIC!! Ergogenic Aids & Nutritional Supplementation • Supplements are just that…Supplemental!! • Whole foods should supply basic total caloric intake of an athlete’s diet. • Choose supplements that are high quality, professional grade. Research! • There is no magic pill formula to success!!

  50. 1 hour prior to activity Consume a snack meal that is high in complex carbohydrates Avoid consuming fats and proteins 16 oz water or sports drink The Pre-Workout Rule