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C. Are You on Track with Your Training?. Injury Prevention and Nutrition for Track Athletes Steven L. Cole, ATC, CSCS Director of Sports Medicine College of William and Mary Dan Stimson Alex Gibby Kathy Newberry Brian Cunningham Emil Davis.

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are you on track with your training


Are You on Track with Your Training?

Injury Prevention and Nutrition for Track Athletes

Steven L. Cole, ATC, CSCS

Director of Sports Medicine

College of William and Mary

Dan Stimson

Alex Gibby

Kathy Newberry

Brian Cunningham

Emil Davis

Andy Gerard-Stanford University

Walt Drenth-Arizona State

Pat Van Rossum

AcknowledgementSpecial Thanks for their guidance and “Team Approach” to the care of our student-athletes
  • Discuss various training tips to promote fitness and wellness
  • Identify common injuries & conditions that limit training
  • Review simple strengthening exercises for injury prevention
  • Review a progressive, functional based return to running program
  • Discuss various nutrition tips to promote fitness and recovery
principle of transition
Principle of Transition
  • Injuries occur during transition
  • “Culprits & Victims”
  • “Round holes & Square pegs”
intrinsic abnormalities
Intrinsic Abnormalities
  • Malalignment
  • Muscle Imbalance
  • Inflexibility
  • Muscle Weakness
  • Instability
extrinsic abnormalities
Extrinsic Abnormalities
  • Equipment
  • Environment
  • Technique Training
  • Training Errors
training errors
Training Errors
  • Surface selection: Softer better
  • Balance of Intensity and Volume
    • Volume without adequate recovery
    • Too high intensity for fear of volume
  • Technique: over striding
  • Work Ethic
    • “take care of the small things”
    • Patience
treatment principle
Treatment Principle
  • Injury- specific management
  • Recognize & address the Psychological components
  • Prevention- addressing risk factors
    • Identify & manage
tools and tricks
Foam Roller


Tennis & Golf Ball


Frozen bottle of water

Ice Cups

Heart Rate monitor

Night Splint

Swiss Ball

Lace Locks

Water Bottle

Tools and Tricks
vocal cord dysfunction vs exercise induced asthma

Difficulty with getting air in

Neck & Throat tightness

Sawing sound


Difficulty with getting air out

Chest tightness

Whistling sound

Vocal Cord Dysfunction vs Exercise Induced Asthma
vocal cord dysfunction management
Vocal Cord Dysfunction Management
  • Proper diagnosis
  • Diaphramatic vs Clavicular breathing
    • In nose, out mouth
    • Choral director
  • Increased awareness of laryngeal tightness
  • Relaxation
    • “Right here, right now”
  • Females below 13-17 % body fat
  • Decreased bone density
  • Osteoporosis
  • Evaluated and monitored by experienced physician
common cold uri
Common Cold-URI
  • Fewer in those who exercise
    • Positive change in immune system
  • Caution: 90 minutes or longer of continuous exercise does suppress immune system
  • No exercise: Temp greater than 100
  • Manage symptoms-virus
    • 7 to 10 days
prevention uri
  • Rehydration & nutrition within 30 minute to 1 hr post workout
    • Fruit juice, garlic, zinc
  • Frequent Hand washing
  • Increased rest/sleep
    • afternoon nap
  • Intervene early/Isolate when sick
  • Critical role in restoring body
    • 8 to 9 hours of uninterrupted
    • Less than 6 hours, tax immune system
  • Lack of doesn’t hurt strength or endurance, but does performance
  • Poor quality sign of overtraining, dehyradration, stress
  • Decreased total RBC concentration
    • Athletes normally below “normal” levels
  • Athletic Pseudoanemia (Sport Anemia)
    • Iron level normal, baseline plasma volume expanded= decreased RBC concentration
  • Evaluation by experienced physician
  • Increase dietary iron intake
stress fractures
Stress Fractures
  • Wolff’s Law
    • Increased strength in response to increased demand
  • Bone endures stress whenever force is loaded upon it
    • Shock of weight bearing
    • Pull of a muscle
  • Decreased blood flow to bone cortex leads to ischemia
stress fracture management
Stress Fracture Management
  • Prevent: weeks in the making before symptoms arise
  • Early intervention with activity modification
  • Fracture Boot
  • Non-weight bearing on crutches
return to running
Return to Running
  • Progression of functional activity
  • Very structured, all timed
  • Pain & symptoms are to guide progression

return to running1
Return to Running
  • Phase I: Walking
    • 30 minutes, aggressive, pain free
  • Phase II: Plyometric Routine
    • Hopping, 470 foot contacts
  • Phase III: Walk/Jog progression
    • 5 minute/1 minute to 2 minute/4minute
  • Phase IV: Timed Running Schedule
    • Intermediate & Advanced
  • Mileage Schedule
  • Pain identification scale
  • Preventable: Decrease friction
    • “Soap and starch your socks”
  • Proper shoe fit
  • Clean, appropriate socks
    • 3 pair new socks with new shoes
  • Treat as an open wound, protect against infection
  • “When the shoe fits, wear it”
    • 250 miles, 505 of absorption lost: life: 350 miles
    • Feet larger in afternoon
  • Orthotics
    • Full length, off the shelf
    • Identify a need
strength training
Strength Training
  • Work the Back side
  • Target the Core
  • Mix it up
    • High reps, 12-15, low wt
    • Low reps, 6-8, high wt
  • Multitask: compound movements
strength training1



Abdominals/Core stability

Mid/Upper Back/ Scapula stabilizer




Lower Back

Hip Rotators & Hip Flexors


Strength Training
  • Too much-increases instability
  • Injury management/resolution
  • Adequate, appropriate warm up & cool down
  • Static vs Dynamic
    • Move muscle & joint gently & progressively to point of slight tension, release & repeat
cross training



Aqua jogging

Various activity, various workouts

Cross Training
  • Balanced Diet
  • Challenges
    • Poor planning
    • Lack of education
    • Disordered Eating
    • Diverse group of specialized athletes
    • Duration of event day/weekend
      • Event schedule, multiple participants
defining sports performance nutrition
Athletes Have

Special Needs!

Require More Nutrients

Increase in Protein

Increase in Carbohydrates

Increase in Vitamins and Minerals

Defining Sports Performance Nutrition
benefits of proper nutrition
Benefits of Proper Nutrition
  • Decreased time of recovery
  • Increased energy
  • Decreased loss of muscle tissue in-season
  • Increased stamina
  • Decreased percent body fat
  • Injury prevention
  • Improved health
sport specific nutrition
Sport-specific nutrition
  • Explosive Athletes
  • Explosive strength and power is required on a sustained, repetitive basis.
  • Muscle glycogen is immediate energy source.
  • High protein requirements
  • Constant supply of carbohydrates to refuel bodies glycogen stores.
  • Total Caloric Ratio Need
  • 20% Fat
  • 25% Protein
  • 55% Carbohydrate
sport specific nutrition1
Sport-specific nutrition
  • Endurance Athletes
  • Aerobic pathway is primary energy source.
  • Fatty acids & Muscle glycogen main fuels.
  • Moderate protein requirements
  • Constant supply of carbohydrates to refuel bodies glycogen stores.
  • Total Caloric Ratio Need
  • 20% Fat
  • 20% Protein
  • 60% Carbohydrate
  • Limited storage capacity, must replenish
    • 600gm per day
  • Consume 30-60gms/hr continuous exercise
  • 20 hours to fully replenish
    • .05gms of CHO/lb body wt every 2 hrs
      • 150lbs=75gms every 2 hrs
carbohydrates rich foods
Carbohydrates rich Foods
  • ½ cup rice 25gms
  • ½ cup spaghetti 17gms
  • 4 oz orange juice 13gms
  • 1 slice wheat bread 11gms
  • ½ cup oatmeal 27gms
  • 1 cup corn flakes 24gms
  • 1 large banana 31gms
simple vs complex cho
Simple vs. Complex CHO

Complex Carbohydrates

  • Are absorbed by the body slowly.
  • Digest & release glucose into bloodstream at slow & steady rate.

Slow release of CHO into the bloodstream:

  • Regulates appetite.
  • Provides prolonged supply of CHO to the blood stream.
  • Provides a nutritional energy substrate which will further spare & replenish muscle & liver glycogen.
types of complex carbohydrates
Types of Complex Carbohydrates
  • Raw fibrous vegetables like broccoli, spinach, carrots, green beans, cucumbers, tomatoes.
  • Grains like oats, breads, bran cereals, pasta, rice.
  • Starchy vegetables like potatoes, corn, peas, beans
  • Proteins are the building block of muscle.
  • Proteins spare muscle breakdown during exercise.
  • Protein is essential for maintenance, growth & recovery.
  • .05-.07gms/lb body wt
    • 150lb = 75-105gms/day
low fat protein rich foods
85-95% Lean ground beef, turkey, ham

Beans & peas

Skinless, grilled, baked, roasted chicken or turkey breast

Seafood-steamed, boiled, baked or grilled

Low-fat cottage cheese

Cheese-2% or skim

Milk-Skim or 2%

White-tuna in water

Trimmed steaks, lamb, pork chop

Nuts or seeds

Eggs or egg beaters

Low-fat yogurt

Turkey bacon or sausage

Low Fat, Protein rich Foods
Higher percentage utilized for energy during low intensity exercise

Essential Fatty Acids required for growth, recovery & overall health

Protective padding for organs

Omega-3 fatty acids-increase stamina & been saturated fats more efficiently

Sources: walnuts, cold water fish (salmon, trout, herring), crab, canola oil

  • 2% drop in body water decreases performance
  • Check color of urine; thirst poor indicator
  • 16oz, 2 hrs prior: 4 to 8 oz every 15 minutes during
  • 16 oz for every pound lost during exercise
  • Sports drinks for electrolytes
  • Foods high in water content
water athletic performance
Water & Athletic Performance
  • Water replenishment is the most important factor during exercise.
  • Outside the narrow range of 98-100°F, your body will always sacrifice muscle function for temperature regulation.
  • Drink a minimum of 1 to 1.5 gallons/day.
    • Flushes out metabolic waste products
    • Maintains the bodies cooling system
    • Prevents muscle cramps, strains and pulls
water athletic performance1
Water & Athletic Performance

Dehydration equals:

  • Reduced endurance levels
  • Fatigue
  • Poor stamina
  • Reduced maximum recovery between workouts
  • Muscle cramps and joint pain

Remember…thirst lags behind need!!!

electrolytes sodium
1 lb sweat contains 400-700mg

1,800-5,600mg lost in 2-3 hrs exercise

2 slice Pizza 1,396 mg

1 cup Chicken noodle soup 1,107 mg

1 oz Pretzels 451 mg

1 cup Cheerios 290 mg

Bagel 198 mg

Gatorade 110 mg

electrolytes potassium
1 lb sweat contains 80-100milligrams

300-800mg lost in 2 –3 hrs exercise

Potato 844mg

Yogurt, 8 oz 530mg

8oz OJ 500mg

Banana 450 mg

Raisins, ¼ cup 283mg

Orange 250mg

Gatorade, 8 oz 30mg

4oz Beef-liver-7mg

4oz Beef-steak-3mg

5 lg steamed clams-7.5mg

1 cup Raisin Bran cereal-24mg

1 cup Cream of Wheat-9mg

1 cup Cheerios-6.4mg

1 cup Wheat Chex-12 mg

1 cup Chick peas-13.8mg

1 cup Prune juice-9.8mg

1 cup Sunflower seeds-16mg

1 slice Watermelon-3 mg

½ cup Raisins-3 mg

iron absorption

Vitamin C

Fructose (fruit sugar)





Whole grains


High Fiber intake

Iron Absorption
Free Radicals: negative impact on cells

Regular exercise increases body’s antioxidant defense against free radicals

Best nutritional sources:

Fruits & Vegetables

Beans: Red, Kidney, Pinto, Black

Fruits: Blueberry, Cranberry, Blackberry, Raspberry, Strawberry, Prune, Apples, Plum

Artichoke, Russet potato, pecans

ergogenic aids nutritional supplementation


Ergogenic Aids & Nutritional Supplementation
  • Supplements are just that…Supplemental!!
  • Whole foods should supply basic total caloric intake of an athlete’s diet.
  • Choose supplements that are high quality, professional grade. Research!
  • There is no magic pill formula to success!!
the pre workout rule
1 hour prior to activity

Consume a snack meal that is high in complex carbohydrates

Avoid consuming fats and proteins

16 oz water or sports drink

The Pre-Workout Rule
the post workout rule
Window of Opportunity: One hour after workout.

50 grams of Protein, 100 grams of CHO as post-workout rule.

Key is to replenish muscle glycogen!!

16 oz water or sports drink for every lb lost

The Post Workout Rule
  • Discussed various training tips to promote fitness and wellness
  • Identified common injuries & conditions that limit training
  • Reviewed simple strengthening exercises for injury prevention
  • Reviewed a progressive, functional based return to running program
  • Discussed various nutrition tips to promote fitness and recovery
thank you for your time and interest
Thank you for your time and interest

Steven L. Cole, ATC, CSCS

College of William and Mary