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Structured presentation: with POWERPOINT. lessness. ( “FÅP”: First-year Project Course, ITU, Denmark ). Claus Brabrand [ [email protected] ]. Outline. Introduction & History Content & Structure Semantics & Consistency Form (tips’n’tricks) Images Text F onts

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structured presentation with powerpoint

Structured presentation:with POWERPOINT

lessness

( “FÅP”: First-year Project Course, ITU, Denmark)

Claus Brabrand

[ [email protected] ]

outline
Outline

Introduction & History

Content & Structure

Semantics & Consistency

Form (tips’n’tricks)

  • Images
  • Text
  • Fonts
  • Colors
  • Themes
  • Animations

Presentation (rehearse + live talk)

1

[~Inventio/Dispositio]

2

[~Elucutio]

3

[~Elucutio]

4

abc

Fnt

[~Memoria/Actio]

5

history
History
  • Purchased by Microsoft for $14,000,000 USD
      • (July 31, 1987)

PowerPoint was invented by Robert Gaskins in early 1987under the name “Presenter” for company Forethought, Inc.

Robert Gaskins

version history archeology
Version History (archeology)
  • PowerPoint 1.0
      • Black’n’White only! (for ”Overhead projector”)
          • (Mac: Apr. ’87)
  • PowerPoint 2.0
      • Now also in color (for work with ”color 35mm slides”)
          • (Mac: May ’88; Win: May ’90)
  • PowerPoint 3.0
      • Added video-out (for use with ”video projectors”)
          • (Win: May ’92; Mac: Sep. ’92)
ubiquitous
Ubiquitous
  • PowerPoint is everywhere
      • Guestimate:
          • ( US population)
          • After today’s lecture… :-)

300,000,000 users

34

popular related tools
(Popular) Related Tools
  • OpenOffice.org (aka. ”OO.o”)
      • Free Software (LGPL) based on ”StarOffice” by Sun
  • Beamer (for use with LaTeX)
      • i.e. good for mathematics:
outline1
Outline

Introduction & History

Content & Structure

Semantics & Consistency

Form (tips’n’tricks)

  • Images
  • Text
  • Fonts
  • Colors
  • Themes
  • Animations

Presentation (rehearse + live talk)

1

[~Inventio/Dispositio]

2

[~Elucutio]

3

[~Elucutio]

4

abc

Fnt

[~Memoria/Actio]

5

content kind of talk
MESSAGEContent ~ Kind of Talk
  • Which kind of talk?:
      • (different ”conventions and appropriateness’es”)
      • Research talk ”conservative”
      • Lecture
      • Debriefing
      • Project presentation
      • Advertizing talk (aka. ’sales pitch’) ”fancy”

Warning: PowerPoint often

tends towards ”sales pitch”!

(may distract from message)

note on fancy effects
MESSAGENote on ”Fancy Effects”

”The fancy effects offered by today’s presentation software should be used only when they contribute more to the message than they distract from it.”

-- Robert Gaskins”Powerpoint at 20: Back to Basics”Communications of the ACM, 50(12), 2007

know your audience
(Know your) Audience
  • Prerequisites:
      • Educational level
      • Language & tone (~ type of audience)
      • Technical skills (terminology, abbreviations, …)
  • Essentially: ”know what your audience knows”
      • i.e., ”empathy”
  • Mediators of Change (if applicable):
      • Who’s minds are you trying to change?
      • …and will they ”take” your message?
focal point of presentation
Focal Point of Presentation
  • Be aware:
      • PowerPoint tends to ”steal the focus”:
      • May be perfectly okay (in some situations)
          • Just but be aware of it!

Presenter-oriented

(~ teacher-centric)

Audience-oriented

(~ student-centric)

vs.

Monologue

(one-way communication)

Interaction

(exchange of ideas)

Warning: PowerPoint often

tends towards this one…!

audience concentration
Audience Concentration
  • Experiment:
      • Fitted students with pulse readers (during lecture):

pulse readings:

Warning: No long ”talks”

without breaks or variation!

on simplicity
On Simplicity

Advantage: PowerPoint promotes simplicity!

(due to space constraints)

”Entia non sunt multiplicanda praeter necessitatem”

"All other things being equal, the simplest solution is the best”

-- ”Occam’s Razor”, 14th century

(Paraphrased from Latin)

”La semplicità è l'ultima delle sofisticazioni”

"Simplicity is the ultimate sophistication”

-- Leonardo da Vinci,

(Translated from Italian)

"La perfection est atteinte non quand il ne reste rien à ajouter, mais quand il ne reste rien à enlever"

"Perfection is achieved: not when there is nothing more to add, but when there is nothing more to remove”

-- Antoine de Saint-Exupéry

(Translated from French)

but not too simplistic
        

 

 

 

        

Correlation

is not

Causation

…but NOT TOO simplistic!

”Everything should be made as simple as possible, but notsimpler than that”

-- Albert Einstein

“We are to admit no more causes of natural things than such as are both trueand sufficient to explain their appearances”

-- Sir. Isaac Newton

Warning: PowerPoint often tends towards (over-)simplification!

”Empirically observed covariation is a necessary, but not sufficient condition for causality.”

vs.

Example from:

[Tufte, 2003 ]

(Possibly shortest ’true statement’ of phenomenon.)

(Grosly over-simplistic!)

structuring your talk
Structuring your Talk
  • Recall the 5 canons (from classical rhetorics):
      • Inventio
      • Disposito
      • Elucutio
      • Memoria
      • Actio

Advantage: PostItsTM”promote” simplicity!

(due to space constraints)

…is how this presentation got organized

1 point
1 Point:

One point per slide

make structure explicit
Make Structure Explicit
  • Use outline:(aka. roadmap)
  • Usually (recommend following structure):
      • Introduction ”say what you are gonna say”,
      • Body (part 1, 2, …, n) ”say it”,
      • Conclusion ”then, say what you’ve said”.

a

”progress indicator”

may help even further

Advantage: Audience can follow the explicit structure

(where are we, what next, ..)

usually don t use chronological structure
Chronological:

First, we did …;

Then, we tried …;

Hereafter, we …;

Final Solution

Final Solution

Initial problem

Initial problem

(Usually) Don’t useChronological Structure

Post-Processed:

  • The Problem is …;
  • The Solution is …;
  • ProblemSolution …;

Advantage: Easier to

present and follow

(demonstrates reflection)

Warning: Usuallya bad idea for projects

(lots of ”irrelevance”)

other ways of structuring
Inductive Structure:Other ways of Structuring

Deductive Structure:

Introduction

Introduction

“Build-up”

Solution

Solution

“Break-down”

outline2
Outline

Introduction & History

Content & Structure

Semantics & Consistency

Form (tips’n’tricks)

  • Images
  • Text
  • Fonts
  • Colors
  • Themes
  • Animations

Presentation (rehearse + live talk)

1

[~Inventio/Dispositio]

2

[~Elucutio]

3

[~Elucutio]

4

abc

Fnt

[~Memoria/Actio]

5

form vs content
CONTENT

CONTENT

“Decod

Content

+ FORM

e”

e”

“Encod

Form vs. Content
  • Form and Content are not independent:

usually

Form

Content

but also!

”A good ’encoded’form guide ’decoding’ of the content”:

differential importance
Differential Importance
  • Use [de-]emphasis to ”encode” importance:
      • Bold, Italics, or emphasis color ”for emphasis”
          • e.g., This is really important
      • Gray or Parentheses ”for deemphasize”
          • e.g., (this is not as important)
      • Standard Color (e.g, black)for ”the rest”
          • e.g., this is of standard importance

Advantage: Helps the

reader tremendously!

(but use consistently)

semantic coloring
Semantic Coloring
  • Use colors to ”encode” content information:
      • Blue for some concept
      • Green for some other concept
      • Purple for some third concept
  • You can do this…:
      • Globally for entire presentation
      • Locally for one slide/section (caution of ”mix-ups”)

(e.g., server)

(e.g., client)

(e.g., application)

classApplication {

Client user;

Server db;

Application(Client c, Server s) {

this.user = s;

this.db = c;

db.addClient(user);

register(db, user);

...

Warning: Your ”color scheme”

will affect overall aesthetics and ”look-and-feel” (caution)

consistency
Consistency
  • Be meticulously consistent:
  • Pick a(ny) convention (and stick with it)!

We employ two data-flow analyses

to construct a graph […]

We instrument the compiler with an interprocedural data flow analysis

that extracts […]

In Sections 4 and 5, the two parts

of the data-flow-analysis are […]

outline3
Outline

Introduction & History

Content & Structure

Semantics & Consistency

Form (tips’n’tricks)

  • Images
  • Text
  • Fonts
  • Colors
  • Themes
  • Animations

Presentation (rehearse + live talk)

1

[~Inventio/Dispositio]

2

[~Elucutio]

3

[~Elucutio]

4

abc

Fnt

[~Memoria/Actio]

5

images
Images
  • Use relevant images whenever possible:
      • Improves appearance (if used appropriately)
      • Makes a presentation ”less boring”
      • Helps association (if used appropriately)
  • May be used as (psychological-)anchors
      • i.e., ”recall” of content/thoughts/discussions/emotions/...

content

thoughts

”Red/black-tree”

e.g.,

association

discussions

emotions

(Many people ”store”

lots of things

effectively /w images)

tips n tricks
PrtScr

Ctrl

Ctrl

V

C

Ctrl

V

vs.

Tips’n’Tricks
  • Locating/creating images:
      • Inspiration: [ images.google.com ]
      • Use digital camera:
  • Incorporating Images:
  • Set transparent color (in ”Picture Tool Bar”)

e.g.,

[PrtScr] ; Paint ; ; [select area] ; ; PPT ;

Unfortunately

only one color

tips n tricks cont d
Tips’n’Tricks (cont’d)
  • Align Images !!!
      • (makes slides look more solid & stable)
  • Constant space invariants
      • (…same thing)
  • Moving images precisely
      • [Alt] + mouse
      • [Ctrl] + keys
      • PPT ”window zoom”

(for further increased precision)

DEMO ”SELECT” + ”DISTRIBUTE H/V”

tips n tricks cont d 2
Tips’n’Tricks (cont’d2)
  • Set ”same height”
      • (for horizontally aligned images)
  • Set ”same width”
      • (for vertically aligned images)
  • Compress images
      • (to save space)
tips n tricks cont d 21
Tips’n’Tricks (cont’d2 )

2

  • Use arrows to direct attention:
      • (or crossreference)
  • Use highlighting to emphasis relevance:

class Application {

Client user;

Server db;

Application(Client c, Server s) {

...

db.addClient(user);

register(db, user);

slide31
Modality redouplication:

vs.

not see

not hear

TEXT

”Less is more”

Text

abc

  • Avoid / limit ”text-only-slides”:
      • Uninspirational

(…and boooooring!)

  • Avoid ”full sentences”:
      • many will read 100%
      • i.e., not concentrate on you
  • Avoid ”orphans”:
      • Lone word on a newline

In fact (generally):

bullets
Bullets!
  • Use with great caution!!!

”Bullets don’t kill people,

people kill people”

-- NRA (National Rifle Association, USA)

Warning: Sequencing is

uni-dimenstional!

Warning: Hierarchical info

structures have to be”linearized” (= flattened)

A list can either (be ordered)…:

  • chronologically(e.g., earlylate);
  • alphabetically (e.g. ’A’’Z’);
  • logically (e.g. firstlast); xor
  • priority-wise (e.g., highlow)

Warning: we loose

structural information!

Warning: we loose

inter-dependencies!

i.e. one order only (at same time)!

f o n t s
FOnts
  • Two (very different!)font design goals:

“No area is so small that you cannot spend your whole life researching it.”

-- M. Schwartzbach

(oral communication)

Designed to be read on paper:

Designed to be read on screen:

vs.

  • e.g.,:
  • Tahoma(Carter, 1994)
  • Verdana(Carter, 1996)
  • Trebuchet(Connare, 1996)
  • e.g.,:
  • Times Roman(Morison et al., 1931)
  • Helvetica(Miedinger, 1957)
  • Arial (Nicholas & Saunders, 1982)
sans ou avec serifs
Sans ou Avec Serifs?
  • ”Serif” Fonts:
      • Usually best on paper
  • ”Sans Serif” Fonts:
      • Usually best on screen
  • Online font readability test:

population avg.:

my scores:

[ http://edtechfm.sdsu.edu/bhoffman/type/font/intro.htm ]

font usage
Font Usage
  • Size:
      • Always:
          • (for quite obvious reasons:-)
  • Quantity:
      • Maximum:
          • Use monospace fonts (e.g., ”Courier New”)for code / programming fragments

Otherwise:

Use bold or ”wide fonts”

(e.g., ”Arial Black”)

”font size ≥ 20”

”2-3 fonts/presentation”

Application(Client c, Server s) {

this.db = s;

this.user = c;

super();

}

c o l o r s cont d
 R2 +G2 + B2 Colors (cont’d)
  • Lots of ”bad combinations”:
      • Note: often poorly reproduced on projectors
  • Caution with |RGB|-difference (contrast):
      • In general, Maximize this (approximation):
      • for any adjacent colors (R1, G1, B1) and (R2, G2, B2)
      • where (R = |R1-R2|, G = |G1-G2|, B = |B1-B2|)

”Red on Orange”

”Blue on Green”

”Black on Blue”

”Yellow on White”

c o l o r s
Colors
  • Caution with colorblindness!
      • Red-Green colourblindness:7–10% of (male) population

(i.e., statistically 2-3 of the ” s” among you in class)

”Ishihara”

(color test plate):

Should say ”74”

(”21” or nothing,

if colourblind)

Illustration by:

E. W. Scripture, 1895

“Thinking, Feeling, Doing”

themes
THEMES

  • Themes are convenient
  • BUT: be careful
      • Some are very very very frequently used!!!
animations
Animations
  • Animations can make presentation more live
  • BUT: be careful
      • Many different
      • Inconsistent use
      • Overly fancy

Chaotic / Amateur’ish

outline4
Outline

Introduction & History

Content & Structure

Semantics & Consistency

Form (tips’n’tricks)

  • Images
  • Text
  • Fonts
  • Colors
  • Themes
  • Animations

Presentation (rehearse + live talk)

1

[~Inventio/Dispositio]

2

[~Elucutio]

3

[~Elucutio]

4

abc

Fnt

[~Memoria/Actio]

5

presentation recap
Rehearsal:

Test equipment beforehand

Get to know room

Avoid CO2drinks before talk

(Auken)

Rehearse slide transitions

Presentation flow

Plan (dynamic) skip points

Get to know personal pace

#slides/minute

Incremental uncovering

(aka. ”striptease” ~ OHP)

Disable ”menu on right click”

(in Tools>Options>View)

Live presentation:

Use all Mathias’ advice

…from BRPO

Speak loud & clearly

Use ”presenter”

Use keys ”b” / ”w”

…for focus on you

# +

…to jump to particular slide #

Cultural differences

Denmark vs. Germany

Subject differences

Science vs. Humanities

Presentation (recap)
small exercises
Small Exercises
  • Reflect:
      • How did I make the Title slide?
          • (i.e., the first slide of this presentation)?
  • Synthesis:
      • Try out each of the Image Tips’n’Tricks
          • (in succession)
  • Analyze:
      • Does this presentation ”take its own medicine”?
          • Where? Where not (and how could it be improved)?
  • Apply:
      • Improve your slides
          • e.g., your BPRO presentation(s)
exercise for next week
Exercise (for next week!)
  • Prepare a group presentation on; either:
      • A) ”IT Jobs” – different perspectives:
          • Skills, competences, & personalities (offered and sought)
          • Team and team-work
          • ”Job Index”-like sites
          • IT job sector vs. other sectors
          • Statistics, analyses, & comparisons
      • B) ”Evolution” – different perspectives:
          • Historical: Darwin, Beagle, Galápagos, Finches, Mendel, ..
          • Biological: genes, selection, mutation, recombination, …
          • Psychological: Evolutionary psyc. [Pinker, Dawkins, ...]
          • Religious: ”Evolution vs. Intelligent Design”
          • Ideological: human self-image, memetics, …
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