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Islam 101
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  1. For Next Slide Please Click on M-A-T.Org In the Name of Allah, the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful Islam 101 A comprehensive but basic course about Islam By Prof. Syed B. Soharwardy Muslims Against Terrorism M-A-T.org

  2. M-A-T.Org Introduction • Introductions • Logistics • Why Islam 101? - Background and Need • Desire to know and understand Islam in the Western World • Stereotyping about Islam and Muslims in the Western Media • Stereotyping in Muslim Countries about the West • Activities of interest groups “for” and “against” Islam • Communication gaps between Islam and the Western World • Why Now? • September 11 terrorist attacks on WTC and the Pentagon, and the backlash against Muslims • Countering Terrorism through rational approach NOT through terror or war • Muslims Against Terrorism (MAT) • MAT was established on January 11, 1999 in Calgary, Alberta, Canada • Objectives of MAT

  3. Module 1: Introduction to Islam Module 2: Basic Beliefs Module 2a: Jesus, Part of Islamic Faith Module 3: The Five Pillars of Islam Module 4: Dealings and Behaviours Module 5: Jihad Module 6: Muslim World Module 7: Islam’s Social System Module 8: Role of Women in Islam Module 8a: Relationship between Man and Woman Module 9: Economic System Module 10: Political System Module 11: Judicial System Module 12: The Differences Module 13: Islam in the West M-A-T.Org Islam 101 - Topics

  4. M-A-T.Org Important Rules • This is a class based course and requires class room discussion. • Please consult the handouts for details. This presentation requires explanation of all points. • There is no such thing as stupid question. Please ask questions or send your questions to m-a-t.org@home.com • At the end of each class, there will be a Q & A session • Constructive criticism is a part of this course • We may disagree on some issues but we mustrespect each other’s opinion • This presentation can be copied or used by anyone but please acknowledge M-A-T.Org

  5. Origin of Islam The first man on earth (Adam, peace be upon him) was a Muslim Meanings of Muslim Meanings of Islam First Muslims Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Muhammad (peace be upon them) Brief History of Islam History of Prophets History of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) Early Muslims Prophet Muhammad’s Family (Aaal-e-Nabi) Prophet Muhammad’s Companions (Sahabah) The followers of the Companions (Taab-e-een) Famous Muslims Highlights of Islamic History Contribution of Muslim scientists and researchers for mankind Attributes of Islam Islam is not a mere religion Islam is a way of life Islam is the most structured religion Islam touches and guides each and every aspect of human life Islam is a complete package. There is no pick and choose in Islam. Islam requires complete submission to Allah M-A-T.Org Module 1: Introduction to IslamIslam, the most misunderstood religion in the western world

  6. Islam is the religion of moderation not extremism The Last Book - Holy Qur’an Attributes of Glorious Qur’an Whose Book is this? This is Allah’s Book What’s in Holy Qur’an? Guidance for all humanity Every verse in holy Qur’an has a context. If a verse is read or understood without its context then there is a huge possibility of misunderstanding the Qur’anic verses. How to read and understand Holy Qur’an? Where to find the context? Context is in Sunnah / Hadith What is Sunnah / Hadith? Actions and sayings of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) Sunnah / Hadith provides the details and interpretation of Glorious Qur’an Islam = Qur’an + Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) Difference between Qur’an and Hadith In holy Qur’an every thing is from Allah. It’s words, taxonomy, arrangements, chapters, indexing are all from Allah. In Hadith, the message and the commandments are from Allah but the word’s are of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) Hadith is the most essential and important source for understanding Qur’an. M-A-T.Org Module 1: Introduction to Islam (Continue)

  7. Attributes of Muslim defined by holy Qur'an and Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) Believes in unseen (Ghaib) Obedient to parents Best in manners Caring and loving to all human beings Activist to promote good and stop evil Fears only Allah Completely submits his/her desires to Allah Respectful towards elders, loving and caring towards youngsters Does not harm anyone with his tongue or hands Environmentally sensitive M-A-T.Org Module 1: Introduction to Islam (Continue) • Introduction to Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) • Some Attributes of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) • Birth of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) • Family Background • Early childhood • As a teenager • As an adult • Marriage • Business • Announcing Prophethood • Life in Makkah • Life in Madinah • Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) in the eyes of non-Muslims

  8. Basic Beliefs in Islam God, Prophets, Divine books, Angels, Hereafter, Fate / Luck Five pillars of Islam Believe in ONE God? The Arabic translation of God is Allah. Allah is the deity who is worshipped alone without any partners and associates. He is the Creator of all things. Allah has no boundaries, shapes and bodies. There is nothing like Allah. Allah does not manifest Himself into any person or thing. Why Muslims call God Allah? Muslims prefer to call God Allah because some of the religions in the world use or associate the word “God” for things / personalities other than “GOD”, the Creator and Sustainer of all things and mankind. Some most famous attributes of Allah Believe in Prophets and Messengers Allah sent His messengers and Prophets to guide human beings. The exact number of Prophets and Messengers are known to Allah. However, according to one of the famous Hadith, Allah did send from time to time 124,000 Prophets and Messengers towards humanity. A Muslim must believe and respect all Prophets and Messengers of Allah. M-A-T.Org Module 2: Basic Beliefs

  9. Every nation or region had received Allah’s Messengers Five most famous Prophets of Allah Noah (Peace be upon him) Abraham (Peace be upon him) Moses ((Peace be upon him) Jesus (Peace be upon him) Muhammad (Peace be upon him) Jesus Christ (Peace be upon him) is the most mentioned Prophet in the Qur’an. He is the only Prophet whose life time events are discussed in detail compared to other Prophets. Muslims believe that Jesus did not die. He was raised towards the Heavens alive. He is still alive and shall return to this world to fight against evil. He then will die in the Jihad (struggle against evil) and will be buried in in Prophet Muhammad’s (Peace be upon him) mosque in Madinah near Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) Jesus and Mary (Peace be upon them) in holy Qur’an; Behold! the angels said: "O Mary! Allah hath chosen thee and purified thee; chosen thee above the women of all nations. (3:43) "O Mary! worship thy Lord devoutly; prostrate thyself and bow down (in prayer) with those who bow down.” (3:44) M-A-T.Org Module 2A: Jesus, Part of Islamic Faith

  10. Behold! the angels said "O Mary! Allah giveth thee glad tidings of a Word from Him: his name will be Christ Jesus. Christ the son of Mary held in honor in this world and the Hereafter and of (the company of) those nearest to Allah. (3:45) "He shall speak to the people in childhood and in maturity and he shall be (of the company) of the righteous. (3:46) "And Allah will teach him the Book and Wisdom the Law and the Gospel. (3:48) Behold! Allah said: "O Jesus! I will take thee and raise thee to Myself and clear thee (of the falsehoods) of those who blaspheme; I will make those who follow thee superior to those who reject Faith to the Day of Resurrection; then shall ye all return unto Me and I will judge between you of the matters wherein ye dispute. (3:55) This similitude of Jesus before Allah is as that of Adam: He created him from dust then said to him: "Be" and he was. (3:59) And behold! Allah will say "O Jesus the son of Mary! didst thou say unto men `worship me and my mother as gods in derogation of Allah"? He will say: "Glory to Thee! never could I say what I had no right (to say). Had I said such a thing Thou wouldst indeed have known it. Thou knowest what is in my heart though I know not what is in Thine. For Thou knowest in full all that is hidden. (5:116) Some important attributes of Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) Relationships with other Prophets Last Messenger of Allah Prophet of Mercy and Messenger of Allah towards all humanity M-A-T.Org Module 2A: Jesus, Part of Islamic Faith

  11. Believe in Divine Books Muslims believe in all divine books including; Divine Booklets Psalms of David (Zaboor) Torah (old Testament) Bible (Enjeel) (new Testament) Qur’an Holy Qur’an is the continuation of the books before Qur’an and it is the last book in which Allah has completed His message for the humanity. Common message of all divine books Qur’an verifies Torah and Enjeel Allah has completed His message/ guidance towards humanity Believe in Angels Muslims believe in all angels. Angels are made of light (noor) and do nothing but what Allah asks them to do. They are very obedient to Allah. The actual population of angels is only known to Allah. Some famous Angels Gabriel (Peace be upon him) (Was responsible to bring revelations to Allah’s Prophets and Messengers) Mekaiel (Peace be upon him) (Responsible for weather and agriculture) Izraiel (Peace be upon him) (Responsible for taking people's soul and hence causing them to die M-A-T.Org Module 2:Basic Beliefs (Continue)

  12. Israfiel (Peace be upon him) (responsible to blow the Horn in order to end this universe and blow the Horn again to make them alive in order to face the judgment day. Kiraman Katebeen (Two respectful writers) Every human being is accompanied by two angels at all times and in all situations. Symbolically, one is on the right shoulder and the other is on the left shoulder. The angel on the right side writes whatever good is done by the person and the angel on the left side writes whatever bad is done by the person. This whole record of good and bad deeds will be handed over to the person on the Judgment Day. Believe in Hereafter Life after death According to Islam every human being is responsible for his/her actions and he or she will be accountable in front of Allah on the Judgment Day about two things Allah will ask, I had given you life, where and how did you spend it? I had given you means for your life, where and how did you spend those means (wealth, resources, power, etc...)? Muslims believe that Allah already knows everyone's deeds. The above process is only for reminding every individual what kind of life they had in this world. M-A-T.Org Module 2: Basic Beliefs (Continue)

  13. Once every individual pays his / her accounts to Allah, then Allah alone will decide who will be punished and sent to Hell and who will be rewarded with Heaven. The Mercy of Allah will play a very important role and Allah may forgive whoever he wants regardless of the numbers and quantity of sins. Allah loves to forgive but the criteria of forgiveness is defined by Allah alone. No body else. The entry into Heaven depends upon the mercy of Allah. Description of Heaven in holy Qur’an A very loving, peaceful, unimaginable place where the creation will be able to see the Creator and worship Him Description of Hell in holy Qur’an A very horrible place in which humans, Jinn and rocks will burn. Believe in Fate / Destiny A Muslim believes that no one can cause harm or benefit except Allah. Whatever good or bad happens in this world, it is according to the wish of Allah. But Allah does not force anyone to choose certain beliefs or lifestyle. It is the person’s decision and the person will be responsible for the decisions. The balance between the above two points is critical M-A-T.Org Module 2: Basic Beliefs (Continue)

  14. Cleanliness; is the most important requirement for worshipping Allah Wudhu (Ablution) Requirements Steps Taking Shower Requirements Conditions Steps Cleanliness when using Toilet Dress Place Mosques (Masjid) Place for worship Respect for Mosques Value of praying in the mosque Prayer in congregation What is Shari’a? (Jurisprudence) Sources & Principles Intention Why intention is important? Celebrations in Islam Eid ul Fitr Youmul Arafa (Hajj day) Eid ul Adhha Animal Slaughtering Ramadhan The Night of Power (Lailatul Qadr) Anniversary of Holy Qur’an Other Events M-A-T.Org Module 2: Basic Beliefs (Continue)

  15. Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said that Islam is based upon the following five pillars. Anyone who demolishes (does not practice) these five pillars, in fact, he /she demolishes the building of Islam. Shahadah, testifying that there is no God but Allah and Muhammad (peace be upon him) is His last Messenger Five mandatory prayers (Salat) Fajr (Morning prayers before Sunrise) Dhohr (Zohar) Prayer (Noon Prayer but after the noon time) Asr (Afternoon prayers but before sunset) Maghrib (right after the sunset prayers) Isha (late evening prayers at night) Movie on Salat A person can offer optional prayers and may remember (Dhikr) Allah at any time Zakat: A Muslim with certain amount of savings must pay 2.5% of his savings to the poors every year. This is called Zakat. The optional charity called Sadqah can be given at any time and in any quantity Fasting in Ramadhan, every Muslim adult, men or women must fast everyday from Dawn to Sunset in the month of Ramadhan. During fasting, the fasting person must avoid eating, drinking, smoking and sexual relationships. Certain people are exempted from fasting, such as children, sick, elderly (weak), travelers and women in periods. M-A-T.Org Module 3: Five Pillars of Islam

  16. Module 3 (Continue) In certain situations person has to complete his / her missed fasts later on or feed the poor to compensate for missed fasting days (Movie on Fasting) Hajj, Every Muslim adult, men or women who has enough resources and physically capable to travel to Makkah must perform Hajj, at least once in the lifetime. History of Ka’ba Movie on Hajj Other Components Adhan and Iqamah (call for prayer) Friday Prayer Significance of Friday Other Components(Continue) Islamic Calendar Start, months, important dates Eid Prayers Other Optional Prayers Optional Fasting Optional Charity Umrah (Small Pilgrimage) Supplications Rituals performed at Birth Adhan & Iqamah in ears Aqiqah Rituals performed at the time of death and burial Ghusl, Kafn, Salatul Janazah, Burial, Grave, Graveyard, Du’a for the deceased M-A-T.Org Module 3: Five Pillars of Islam (Continue)

  17. Anger Management What to do when one is angry? Stress Management Satisfaction of Heart and Soul is in the remembrance of Allah Avoiding Violence The violence on the lands and in the seas is earned by human hands. Revenge Overcoming the revenge Forgiveness is better than revenge Arrogance Dangers of arrogance Problems of arrogance Suicide is forbidden in Islam A person who will commit suicide will go to hell. Martyrdom, the most sacred and desirable in Islam Difference between Martyrdom and Suicide Death No one has the right to take someone’s or his / her own life Death, a call ONLY from God Repentance, most desirable action Forgiveness, a blessing of Allah Life, an opportunity Counter Terrorism in Islam Prophet Muhammad’s (Peace be upon him) Journey to Taif Conquest of Makkah The Agreement of Hudaibiyah No compulsion in Islam M-A-T.Org Module 4: Dealings and Behaviours

  18. What is Jihad? Jihad means struggle for the sake of Allah and must not include any personal ambitions and interests. Types of Jihad Jihad bin Nafs (Struggle within against the evil desires) Jihad bil Qalam / Lisaan (Struggle against evil through writing or/and speaking) Jihad Bis Saif (Warfare to stop evil) Conditions for Jihad (warfare) Can people make their groups and announce Jihad (warfare)? Who is responsible for declaring Jihad (warfare)? Kidnapping and hijacking innocent civilians is a crime Warfare in Islam The battles during Prophet Muhammad’s (peace be upon him) time Do not kill innocent civilians Women and children must not be harmed Places of worship of other religions must not be destroyed Water should not be contaminated Green trees should not be cut Elderly and sick should not be killed Those who surrender must be protected Forgiveness must prevail over revenge Killing someone just because of his/her nationality or religion is a crime M-A-T.Org Module 5: Jihad

  19. Module 6: Muslim world What’s happening in the Muslim world? Impacts of colonial era on Muslim countries Continuation of imperialism/ dictatorships in Muslim countries Effects of Capitalism - IMF and World Bank Stereotyping of Western Society by Muslims Stereotyping of Muslims by Western non-Muslims Communication gaps, insecurity, and exploitation Characteristics of a model Islamic State? Module 7: Social System Is Western Culture Christian? Islamic culture OR Islamic values The most important unit of Islam’s social system is FAMILY. Islam wants to establish a very strong moral and spiritual society. Marriage Vs common law relationship pornography and nudity Local cultures in Muslim countries compare to Islamic values Tribal systems and feudal lords Misinterpretation of holy Qur’an and Sunnah for exploitation M-A-T.Org Module 6: Muslim WorldModule 7: Islam’s Social System

  20. Male domination Social gatherings in Islam Separation of Female from Male in social gatherings Marriages Prophet Muhammad’s (Peace be upon him) marriages Arranged marriages Islamic way of weddings Divorce Clothing Male clothing Female clothing Arts & Craft Music and Dance Food Halal and Haraam Dietary restrictions in Islam No pig and alcohol products Paintings and Statues Photography Jokes and picnics (Having fun) Tourism The effects of five pillars of Islam on Muslim’s social life Relationships with non-Muslims Environmental sensitivity Animal Cruelty Absolutely forbidden in Islam Some examples from Islamic history Care for pets M-A-T.Org Module 7: Islam’s Social System (Continue)

  21. What Qur’an says about Women? Those who slander chaste women indiscreet but believing are cursed in this life and in the Hereafter: for them is a grievous Penalty. On the Day when their tongues their hands and their feet will bear witness against them as to their actions. On that Day Allah will pay them back (all) their just dues and they will realize that Allah is the (very) Truth that makes all things manifest. (Surah Noor, 24:23,24,25) What Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) says about women? Woman as mother The highest achievement of any men is under woman’s feet Woman as Wife Prophet Mohammed's relationship with his wives Woman as daughter A Muslim who raises three daughters with good education and character will be in Heaven with Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) Woman as co-workers Woman as professionals Prophet Muhammad’s (peace be upon him) own wife, Khadijah (May Allah be pleased with her) was the most successful business women of her time. Exploitation of women in the west in the name of freedom Exploitation of women in Islamic countries in the name of Islam Hijab What is Hijab? Bikini or mini skirt Vs. modest dress M-A-T.Org Module 8: Role of Women in Islam

  22. Who is better or Superior? In Islam, the criteria of being better or superior does not depend upon; Gender, Colour, Language, nationality, etc.. The better person among you is he or she who is more pious among you. Relationship between husband and wife in Islam They are like garments for each other Mutual respect Comforting for each other Protecting each other Beauty of each other Trusting each other Satisfying each other Compromise Intimate relationship is sacred. Not for display Marrying woman ONLY for sexual pleasure is not sacred What is meant by “man is more powerful over woman”? Monogamy Vs. polygamy Is Western Society monogamous? Children out of wedlock in the West No secret in Islam Islam prefers single marriages Multiple marriages allowed but discouraged Which way is better? Multiple marriages with accountability and responsibility OR have multiple partners with no accountability and responsibility. M-A-T.Org Module 8B: Relationship between Man and Woman

  23. Module 9: Economic System Highlights Responsibilities of State Welfare State Fiscal Discipline Taxes (Zakat & Jizyah) Social Security Pension Employment Earnings Economic exploitation is absolutely forbidden in Islam Interest vs. Profit Taking Loans Stay away from loans if you can Challenges of modern economic system Charities Module 10: Political System The Constitution - Qur’an and Sunnah Electoral System of Islam Head of State (Ameer ul Mo’meneen) Consultative Council (Legislation) Responsibility & Accountability Freedom defined by God vs. freedom defined by man The Best Charter of Human Rights The Last Sermon of Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) Protection of freedom and Constitution The event of Karbala sets the standards Every individual is important Is majority rule always perfect? M-A-T.Org Module 9: Economic System Module 10: Political System

  24. Module 11: Judicial System Judiciary independent of Administration Accountable to Allah When you make decisions among people, make decisions with justice Some cases between Muslims and Non-Muslims during Prophet’s (peace be upon him) time. A Muslim Vs. a Jew A son Vs. a Father case Women Vs. Men Justice starts within the family Capital punishment Pre-requisites Requirements Importance of witnessing Women’s witness Module 12: The Differences Sunni and Shi’a Muslims No difference in basic beliefs No difference in Qur’an No difference about Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) and his family Differences on mostly political issues such as succession of Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) Minor differences within Sunnis Minor differences within Shi’as Some non Muslim groups emerged from Islamic faith Daruze Bahai Ahmady / Qadyani M-A-T.Org Module 11: Judicial System of IslamModule 12: The Differences

  25. Islam in the West Freedom of Religion Mosques and Islamic Schools Everywhere Muslim Students Muslim Population Muslims Born in the West Islam, the fastest growing religion Laws to protect from Discrimination and hate crimes Muslim’s participation in local politics and Activities Relationships between Christians and Muslims Few extremist groups in the West do not represent the entire western community Sympathy and goodwill for Muslims Backlash against Muslims after September 11 and support from Christian community Desire to learn and understand Islam Ignorance about the west in Muslim countries Next Step M-A-T.Org Module 13: Islam in the West

  26. M-A-T.Org End May Allah Guide Us and Open Our Hearts And Minds, And Save Us From Evil. Ameen Thanks for Participating in Islam 101 Acknowledgment We are very thankful to Islamic Supreme Council of Canada; Br. Syed M. Buhari, National President of MAT, Malaysia; Sister, Farzana Shahid, President, MAT Mississauga; Br. M. Farooq Khan, President MAT Canada and Br. Afroz Ali, President MAT, Australia for their suggestions and Support Special thanks to the participants of Islam 101 classes and Presentations Muslims Against Terrorism (M-A-T) Calgary, Alberta, Canada