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ENGLAND’S COLONIAL EXPERIMENTS: THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. America: Past and Present Chapter 2. Leaving Home. Rapid social change in seventeenth-century England English population mobile Different motives for migration religious versus economic Different New World environments

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  2. Leaving Home • Rapid social change in seventeenth-century England • English population mobile • Different motives for migration • religious versus economic • Different New World environments • Different colonial economies

  3. The Stuart Monarchs

  4. Four Colonial Subcultures • The Chesapeake • New England • Middle Colonies • The Carolinas

  5. The Chesapeake: Dreams of Wealth • Richard Hakluyt and other visionaries keep alive the dream of English colonies • Anti-Catholicism prompts English people to challenge Spanish claims in New World

  6. Entrepreneurs in Virginia • Joint-stock companies provide financing • English stockholders in Virginia Company expect instant profits • Jamestown settled 1607 • Colony’s location in a swamp unhealthy • Competition from expansive Powhattans • Colonists do not work for common good

  7. Order Out of Anarchy • 1608-1609--John Smith imposes order • 1609--London Company reorganizes colonial government • 1610-- “Starving Time” ended by arrival of Lord De La Warr, fresh settlers • Conflict with Powhattans • Contributes to “starving time” • 1622—natives attempt to drive out English • 1644—second attempt to drive out English; Powhattan empire destroyed

  8. “Stinking Weed” • 1610--John Rolfe introduces tobacco • 1618-- “Headrights” instituted to encourage development of tobacco plantations • Headright: 50-acre lot granted to each colonist who pays his own transportation, or for each servant brought into the colony • Allows development of huge estates • 1618--House of Burgesses instituted for Virginia self-government

  9. Time of Reckoning • Population increase prevented by imbalanced sex ratio • 3,570 colonists to Virginia 1619-1622 • Men outnumber women 6:1 after 1619 • Contagious disease kills settlers • 1618: Virginia population numbers 700 • 1618-1622: 3,000 immigrate • 1622: Virginia population numbers 1,240 • 1622--Powhattan attack kills 347 settlers

  10. Scandal and Reform • 1624--King James I dissolves London Company • Virginia becomes a royal colony • House of Burgesses continues to meet

  11. Maryland: A Troubled Refuge for Catholics • Initiated by Sir George Calvert (Lord Baltimore) as refuge for English Catholics • 1632--Calvert’s son Cecilius (2nd Lord Baltimore) gains charter to Maryland • Requires toleration among Catholics and Protestants

  12. Lord Baltimore’s Disappointment • Wealthy Catholics unwilling to relocate in America • Common settlers demand greater voice in Maryland government • Protestants refuse to tolerate Catholics • Protestants seize control in 1655 • Scattered riverfront settlements of poor tobacco planters

  13. Reinventing England in America: Plymouth • Pilgrims • Separatists who refused to worship in the Church of England, fled • Escape persecution in Holland • 1620--Plymouth founded at Cape Cod • Plymouth a society of small farming villages bound together by mutual consent • 1691--absorbed into Massachusetts Bay

  14. The Great Migration • Puritans • Wish to remain within the Church of England, work to eliminate all remaining vestiges of the Roman Catholic past • 1629--Puritans despair as King Charles I begins Personal Rule • 1630--John Winthrop leads Puritan group to Massachusetts, brings Company Charter

  15. A “City on a Hill” I • 1630-1640--16,000 immigrated • Settlers usually came as family units • Area generally healthy • Puritans sacrifice self-interest for the good of the community

  16. “A City on a Hill” II • Puritans establish Congregationalism • a state-supported ecclesiastical system in which each congregation is independently governed by local church members • Puritan civil government permits voting by all adult male church members • Elected officials not to concern themselves with voters’ wishes

  17. “A City on a Hill” III • Local, town governments autonomous • Most participated in public life at town level • Townships commercial properties, shares of which could be bought and sold • Village life intensely communal • Laws and Liberties passed in 1648 to protect rights, ensure civil order

  18. Defining the Limits of Dissent: Roger Williams • An extreme Separatist • Condemns all civil states • Champions “liberty of conscience” • Williams expelled to Rhode Island, 1636

  19. Defining the Limits of Dissent:Anne Hutchinson • Believed herself directly inspired by the Holy Spirit • Believed “converted” persons could live without the Moral Law • Charged that Congregational ministers preached a “covenant of works” • Banished to Rhode Island by General Court

  20. Breaking Away • New Hampshire--insignificant until eighteenth century • Rhode Island--received dissenters from Massachusetts • Connecticut--founded by Thomas Hooker • New Haven--absorbed into Connecticut

  21. Diversity in the Middle Colonies • New York • New Jersey • Pennsylvania • Delaware

  22. Anglo-Dutch Rivalry: New Netherlands • Location: Hudson River • New Netherlands originally property of Dutch West Indies Company • Population included Finns, Swedes, Germans, Africans, as well as Dutch • 1664--English fleet captured colony

  23. Anglo-Dutch Rivalry:New York • New York made personal property of James, Duke of York • Property included New Jersey, Delaware, Maine, and various islands • Inhabitants had no political voice beyond the local level • James derived little profit from the colony.

  24. Confusion in New Jersey I • Colony sold by Duke of York to Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret • Settlers refuse to pay rents • grounds: New York governor had promised representative assembly • Berkeley splits colony by selling out to Quaker group

  25. Confusion in New Jersey II • West Jersey becomes Quakers’ colony • Democratic system of government introduced • Diverse, contentious • Neither Jersey prospers

  26. Quakers in America • Pennsylvania founding inseparable from Quakers • “Quaker” a derogatory term for those who “tremble at the word of the Lord” • Members call sect “Society of Friends”

  27. Quaker Belief and Practice • Founder: George Fox (1624-1691) • Believed in “Inner Light” • Rejected idea of original sin, predestination • Each may communicate directly with God • Each has responsibility to cultivate Inner Light • Persecuted as dangerous anarchists

  28. Penn's "Holy Experiment" • Aristocrat William Penn converts to the Society of Friends • Obtains a charter for Pennsylvania • "Holy Experiment"--a society run on Quaker principles • Promotes religious toleration • Protects rights of property-less

  29. Settling Pennsylvania • Immigrants recruited from England, Wales, Ireland, and Germany • Quaker population racked by contention • Non-Quaker population does not share Penn’s ideals • 1701--Penn grants self-rule to Pennsylvania colonists, independence to Delaware

  30. Planting the Carolinas • Reliance on slave labor produced superficial similarity to Chesapeake • Diversity of settlers, environment produced great divergence from Chesapeake

  31. Proprietors of the Carolinas • Granted by Charles II in 1663 to eight “Proprietors” to reward loyalty • “Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina” drawn up by John Locke • created local ruling aristocracy while protecting rights of small landholders • Few inhabitants in first years

  32. The Barbadian Connection • Anthony Ashley Cooper encourages settlement by planters from Barbados • Barbadians settle around Charleston • Barbadians reject Fundamental Constitutions for greater self-government • French Huguenot settlers oppose • 1729--Strife prompts Crown to take over, divide Carolina

  33. Founding of Georgia • Georgia founded in 1732 • Strategic purpose: buffer between Carolinas and Spanish Florida • Charitable purpose: refuge for imprisoned debtors from England • By 1751 a small slave colony

  34. Rugged and Laborious Beginnings • All colonies faced early struggle to survive • Distinct regional differences intensified and persisted throughout the colonial period • Colonists eventually saw themselves as a distinct people

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