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ENGLAND’S COLONIAL EXPERIMENTS: THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. America: Past and Present Chapter 2. Leaving Home. Rapid social change in seventeenth-century England English population mobile Different motives for migration religious versus economic Different New World environments

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leaving home
Leaving Home
  • Rapid social change in seventeenth-century England
  • English population mobile
  • Different motives for migration
    • religious versus economic
  • Different New World environments
  • Different colonial economies
four colonial subcultures
Four Colonial Subcultures
  • The Chesapeake
  • New England
  • Middle Colonies
  • The Carolinas
the chesapeake dreams of wealth
The Chesapeake: Dreams of Wealth
  • Richard Hakluyt and other visionaries keep alive the dream of English colonies
  • Anti-Catholicism prompts English people to challenge Spanish claims in New World
entrepreneurs in virginia
Entrepreneurs in Virginia
  • Joint-stock companies provide financing
  • English stockholders in Virginia Company expect instant profits
  • Jamestown settled 1607
  • Colony’s location in a swamp unhealthy
  • Competition from expansive Powhattans
  • Colonists do not work for common good
order out of anarchy
Order Out of Anarchy
  • 1608-1609--John Smith imposes order
  • 1609--London Company reorganizes colonial government
  • 1610-- “Starving Time” ended by arrival of Lord De La Warr, fresh settlers
  • Conflict with Powhattans
    • Contributes to “starving time”
    • 1622—natives attempt to drive out English
    • 1644—second attempt to drive out English; Powhattan empire destroyed
stinking weed
“Stinking Weed”
  • 1610--John Rolfe introduces tobacco
  • 1618-- “Headrights” instituted to encourage development of tobacco plantations
    • Headright: 50-acre lot granted to each colonist who pays his own transportation, or for each servant brought into the colony
    • Allows development of huge estates
  • 1618--House of Burgesses instituted for Virginia self-government
time of reckoning
Time of Reckoning
  • Population increase prevented by imbalanced sex ratio
    • 3,570 colonists to Virginia 1619-1622
    • Men outnumber women 6:1 after 1619
  • Contagious disease kills settlers
    • 1618: Virginia population numbers 700
    • 1618-1622: 3,000 immigrate
    • 1622: Virginia population numbers 1,240
  • 1622--Powhattan attack kills 347 settlers
scandal and reform
Scandal and Reform
  • 1624--King James I dissolves London Company
  • Virginia becomes a royal colony
  • House of Burgesses continues to meet
maryland a troubled refuge for catholics
Maryland: A Troubled Refuge for Catholics
  • Initiated by Sir George Calvert (Lord Baltimore) as refuge for English Catholics
  • 1632--Calvert’s son Cecilius (2nd Lord Baltimore) gains charter to Maryland
  • Requires toleration among Catholics and Protestants
lord baltimore s disappointment
Lord Baltimore’s Disappointment
  • Wealthy Catholics unwilling to relocate in America
  • Common settlers demand greater voice in Maryland government
  • Protestants refuse to tolerate Catholics
  • Protestants seize control in 1655
  • Scattered riverfront settlements of poor tobacco planters
reinventing england in america plymouth
Reinventing England in America: Plymouth
  • Pilgrims
    • Separatists who refused to worship in the Church of England, fled
    • Escape persecution in Holland
  • 1620--Plymouth founded at Cape Cod
  • Plymouth a society of small farming villages bound together by mutual consent
  • 1691--absorbed into Massachusetts Bay
the great migration
The Great Migration
  • Puritans
    • Wish to remain within the Church of England, work to eliminate all remaining vestiges of the Roman Catholic past
  • 1629--Puritans despair as King Charles I begins Personal Rule
  • 1630--John Winthrop leads Puritan group to Massachusetts, brings Company Charter
a city on a hill i
A “City on a Hill” I
  • 1630-1640--16,000 immigrated
  • Settlers usually came as family units
  • Area generally healthy
  • Puritans sacrifice self-interest for the good of the community
a city on a hill ii
“A City on a Hill” II
  • Puritans establish Congregationalism
    • a state-supported ecclesiastical system in which each congregation is independently governed by local church members
  • Puritan civil government permits voting by all adult male church members
  • Elected officials not to concern themselves with voters’ wishes
a city on a hill iii
“A City on a Hill” III
  • Local, town governments autonomous
  • Most participated in public life at town level
  • Townships commercial properties, shares of which could be bought and sold
  • Village life intensely communal
  • Laws and Liberties passed in 1648 to protect rights, ensure civil order
defining the limits of dissent roger williams
Defining the Limits of Dissent: Roger Williams
  • An extreme Separatist
  • Condemns all civil states
  • Champions “liberty of conscience”
  • Williams expelled to Rhode Island, 1636
defining the limits of dissent anne hutchinson
Defining the Limits of Dissent:Anne Hutchinson
  • Believed herself directly inspired by the Holy Spirit
  • Believed “converted” persons could live without the Moral Law
  • Charged that Congregational ministers preached a “covenant of works”
  • Banished to Rhode Island by General Court
breaking away
Breaking Away
  • New Hampshire--insignificant until eighteenth century
  • Rhode Island--received dissenters from Massachusetts
  • Connecticut--founded by Thomas Hooker
  • New Haven--absorbed into Connecticut
diversity in the middle colonies
Diversity in the Middle Colonies
  • New York
  • New Jersey
  • Pennsylvania
  • Delaware
anglo dutch rivalry new netherlands
Anglo-Dutch Rivalry: New Netherlands
  • Location: Hudson River
  • New Netherlands originally property of Dutch West Indies Company
  • Population included Finns, Swedes, Germans, Africans, as well as Dutch
  • 1664--English fleet captured colony
anglo dutch rivalry new york
Anglo-Dutch Rivalry:New York
  • New York made personal property of James, Duke of York
  • Property included New Jersey, Delaware, Maine, and various islands
  • Inhabitants had no political voice beyond the local level
  • James derived little profit from the colony.
confusion in new jersey i
Confusion in New Jersey I
  • Colony sold by Duke of York to Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret
  • Settlers refuse to pay rents
    • grounds: New York governor had promised representative assembly
  • Berkeley splits colony by selling out to Quaker group
confusion in new jersey ii
Confusion in New Jersey II
  • West Jersey becomes Quakers’ colony
  • Democratic system of government introduced
  • Diverse, contentious
  • Neither Jersey prospers
quakers in america
Quakers in America
  • Pennsylvania founding inseparable from Quakers
  • “Quaker” a derogatory term for those who “tremble at the word of the Lord”
  • Members call sect “Society of Friends”
quaker belief and practice
Quaker Belief and Practice
  • Founder: George Fox (1624-1691)
  • Believed in “Inner Light”
    • Rejected idea of original sin, predestination
    • Each may communicate directly with God
    • Each has responsibility to cultivate Inner Light
  • Persecuted as dangerous anarchists
penn s holy experiment
Penn's "Holy Experiment"
  • Aristocrat William Penn converts to the Society of Friends
  • Obtains a charter for Pennsylvania
  • "Holy Experiment"--a society run on Quaker principles
  • Promotes religious toleration
  • Protects rights of property-less
settling pennsylvania
Settling Pennsylvania
  • Immigrants recruited from England, Wales, Ireland, and Germany
  • Quaker population racked by contention
  • Non-Quaker population does not share Penn’s ideals
  • 1701--Penn grants self-rule to Pennsylvania colonists, independence to Delaware
planting the carolinas
Planting the Carolinas
  • Reliance on slave labor produced superficial similarity to Chesapeake
  • Diversity of settlers, environment produced great divergence from Chesapeake
proprietors of the carolinas
Proprietors of the Carolinas
  • Granted by Charles II in 1663 to eight “Proprietors” to reward loyalty
  • “Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina” drawn up by John Locke
    • created local ruling aristocracy while protecting rights of small landholders
  • Few inhabitants in first years
the barbadian connection
The Barbadian Connection
  • Anthony Ashley Cooper encourages settlement by planters from Barbados
  • Barbadians settle around Charleston
  • Barbadians reject Fundamental Constitutions for greater self-government
  • French Huguenot settlers oppose
  • 1729--Strife prompts Crown to take over, divide Carolina
founding of georgia
Founding of Georgia
  • Georgia founded in 1732
  • Strategic purpose: buffer between Carolinas and Spanish Florida
  • Charitable purpose: refuge for imprisoned debtors from England
  • By 1751 a small slave colony
rugged and laborious beginnings
Rugged and Laborious Beginnings
  • All colonies faced early struggle to survive
  • Distinct regional differences intensified and persisted throughout the colonial period
  • Colonists eventually saw themselves as a distinct people