-C-C-C-. CHAPTER 3. THE MOLECULES OF CELLS. C-H-O. Carbon: The Organic Element. Compounds that are synthesized by cells and contain carbon are organic So what is inorganic?. Why are carbon compounds so prevalent?. 4 valence electron configuration completes shell by sharing 4
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Isomer – compounds with the same molecular formula but different structure
Polymer – a large molecule consisting of similar or identical subunits strung together
Monomers - subunits
sugar is either an aldehyde or a ketone depending on the location of the carbonyl group (p. 37 Fig B)
Storage polysaccharides – are hydrolyzed as needed to provide sugar for the cell
Starch – in plants – consists of many glucose molecules in a helical shape
Glycogen – in animals – stored in the livers and muscles in a branched format
- serve as building materials for structures protecting cells
Cellulose – the major component of the tough cell walls in plants (fiber for humans)
- rod formation
- enzymes that digest starch are unable to hydrolyzed the linkages here (exception: cows & termites)
Chitin – structural polysaccharides are used by arthropods to build their exoskeletons
- large molecules composed of glycerol and fatty acids
Glycerol – an alcohol w/3 carbons, each w/a hydroxyl group
Fatty acids – have long carbon chains (p. 40)
-can be linked to glycerol by dehydration synthesis
-ester linkage bond
-vary in length and # & location of double bonds
Saturated – no double bonds in the tail of the molecule (animal fats – solid at room temperature), causes plaque build up in arteries
Transfats – unsaturated fat that has been converted to saturated by adding hydrogen
Unsaturated – have one or more double bonds in the tail (plant fats – liquid at room temperature)
No! Cancer treatments, poison ivy
Anabolic Steroids – synthetic variants of testosterone, indiscriminate usage can cause liver damage, cancer, infertility, aggressive behavior and reduced sex drive (p. 41)
Who uses anabolic steroids?
You would be surprised!!
Athletes of ALL types, body builders, people who want the perfect body, etc.
Fourth bond is to a variable group (chemical group) called the R group or side chain
Primary – is the protein’s unique sequence of aa’s (one aa change in hemoglobin causes sickle cell) (fig 3.14A)
Secondary – describes how the primary structure is folded into it’s conformation (looks like spring coils or pleated folds) *this results from H bonding between peptides (fig. 3.14B)
Tertiary – describes additional, less regular contortions of the molecule (its 3-D shape)
Quaternary – results from the relationship (bonding interactions) between subunits – each polypeptide chain is a subunit (fig 3.14D)
What is this?
-when a protein unravels & loses its conformation
What causes denaturation?
- Changes in pH, salt [ ], temperature
Who all played a part in discovering the double helix?
Adenine – Thymine
Guanine - Cytosine