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Why did Latin American countries seek independence in the 19 th century?. Revolutions occurred in other parts of the world and a rebellion in Haiti was very influential Increasing tension between those born in the New World ( creoles ) and those born in Spain or Portugal ( peninsulares )

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why did latin american countries seek independence in the 19 th century
Why did Latin American countries seek independence in the 19th century?
  • Revolutions occurred in other parts of the world and a rebellion in Haiti was very influential
  • Increasing tension between those born in the New World (creoles) and those born in Spain or Portugal (peninsulares)
  • The Napoleonic Wars removed the kings of Spain and Portugal
the enlightenment and three revolutions that shook the world
The Enlightenment and Three Revolutions that Shook the World
  • The Enlightenment
    • Challenges to absolute monarchy-questioned the rights of rulers as well as the ruled
    • Beliefs in the equality of men
  • The North American Revolution (1776)
    • First in hemisphere
    • Did not challenge racial inequality
    • U.S. revolutionaries supported and encouraged Latin American revolutionaries
    • US books and pamphlets about revolution (“Common Sense” by Thomas Paine) available in Latin American cities
the french revolution
The French Revolution
  • The French Revolution (1789)
    • Declaration of the Rights of Man-Liberty, Equality, Fraternity
    • Killed their monarchs, established constitutional monarchy
    • Set out to restructure their society to eliminate corporate privilege- restricted rights of the Church
    • Rise of Napoleon (1790s)
      • Impact on French Revolution-made it more conservative
      • Impact on Spain and Portugal—Invaded Spain and forced the king of Portugal to flee to Brazil in 1808
      • Impact on Latin America—caused regional groups to think about their relationship to Spain and Portugal and brought the monarchy to Rio de Janeiro
the haitian revolution 1791
The Haitian Revolution 1791
  • Haiti critical to France as a source of sugar—annexed in 1697
  • Population mostly non-white with large number of slaves
  • Population divided by French Rev.-Rich whites opposed it, poorer whites and non-whites, esp. small planter class, favored it
  • August, 1791 revolt began and pitted whites against mulattos, all of whom wanted to keep the black slaves under control
  • French initially supported the black slaves and declared their freedom in 1793 to keep them from uniting with the Spanish, British involved against slaves
  • Slave leaders, Toussaint l'Ouverture and Jean-Jacques Dessalines led revolution which turned into race war against better off mulattos, 10,000 killed
  • Napoleon turned against new Haitian government-wanted absolute control of colonies-disapproved of Dessalines
  • 1802 Napoleon Declared war on Haiti and sent his brother-in-law L'Ouverture captured and died in France, but Dessalines won over the French and declared indep. of Haiti in 1804
  • Dessalinles’authoritarian ways led to his assassination in 1806 and the beginning of uncertain political rule in Haiti