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Anglo American Colonization of Texas. Chapter 8. The United States won it’s independence from Great Britain (England) in 1783 Americans began moving west to settle new lands Some of these new settlers were Filibusters

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Anglo American Colonization of Texas

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    Presentation Transcript
    1. Anglo American Colonization of Texas Chapter 8

    2. The United States won it’s independence from Great Britain (England) in 1783 Americans began moving west to settle new lands Some of these new settlers were Filibusters An adventurer who engages in a private rebellious activity in a foreign country Phillip Nolan “Captured wild horses” in Texas and sold them in the U.S. Spain grew suspicious of him and told him not to return in 1800 He ignored the warning In 1801 he was killed in a battle with Spanish soldiers near present day Waco Filibusters • Interest in Texas Grows among Anglo Americans

    3. Neutral Ground Agreement In 1800 France reclaimed the Louisiana Territory from Spain In 1803 France sold the Louisiana Territory to the United States To avoid conflicts over the new border Spain and the US compromised The Agreement created a neutral zone between Arroyo Hondo River and Sabine River Stopped border clashes between US and Spain Created a shelter for outlaws Bernardo Gutierrez was a supporter of Father Hidalgo Augustus Magee was an ex-United States soldier Together they invaded Texas, in 1812, with a small army and declared it independent of Spain They captured Nacogdoches, La Bahía, and San Antonio, but Magee died in the fighting The force was eventually attacked and defeated at the Battle of Medina by Spanish General Joaquin de Arredondo Nearly all where killed Filibusters • Gutiérrez-Magee Expedition

    4. Louis Michel Aury Pirate who lived on Galveston Island He agreed to help the few survivors of the Gutierrez-Magee Expedition attack Mexico They were unsuccessful Jean Lafitte Adams-Onís Treaty In 1817 Spain was angry because the U.S. had entered Spanish Florida while fighting Native Americans In 1819 the problem was resolved by the Adams-Onís Treaty Spain gave Florida to the U.S. Set the eastern border of Texas at the Sabine River and the northern at the Red River U.S. gave up all claims to Texas Filibusters • Pirates • While Aury was away Lafitte took over Galveston Island • He pirated Spanish and later American ships in the Gulf of Mexico • The US Navy eventually drove Lafitte from Texas

    5. James Long Led an expedition into Texas in 1819 to declare Texas independent from Spain Long’s forces were defeated at Nacogdoches and a second unsuccessful attack against La Bahía ended in Long’s capture Long was imprisoned in Mexico City and shot in 1822 Long was the last to lead a major filibuster into Texas Jane Long When James Long was killed he left behind a child and his pregnant wife Jane survived the winter of 1821 alone She fought off a Karankawa attack She also gave birth to a daughter In the spring of 1822 Jane returned to the U.S. but she would return Today she is known as the “Mother of Texas” because she was one of the first pioneer women in Texas History Filibusters

    6. Moses Austin In the late 1700’s Moses Austin moved his family from the U.S. to George Morgan’s Colony in Spanish Missouri He started a lead mine and became very wealthy In 1803 Missouri became part of the U.S. through the Louisiana Purchase In 1819 a financial panic hit the U.S. and Moses Austin lost his fortune Austin remembered the success he experienced living in Spanish Territory and decided to try starting over in Texas Moses Austin traveled to San Antonio, Texas in 1820 Governor Martínez said NO! Spain did not trust Austin because of the recent Anglo Filibusters Austin prepared to return to the U.S. when he met and shared his idea with Baron de Bastrop who was an influential citizen of San Antonio Baron de Bastrop arranged another meeting with Martínez This time Martínez agreed to send Austin’s request to a higher authority Expecting approval from Spain, Moses Austin began the long journey home On the way Moses Austin was robbed and developed pneumonia He made it home but was in bad shape Empresarios • Moses Austin presented his idea to Texas Governor Antonio Martínez • He wanted to bring Anglo settlers to Spanish Texas

    7. Moses Austin’s dying wish was for his son Stephen F Austin to carry out his dream Stephen F Austin The area had good soil and lots of rain Stephen Austin’s first settlement on the Brazos River would be named San Felipe de Austin SFA then traveled to New Orleans to begin recruiting colonists Empresarios • Approval • When Moses Austin arrived home he learned that Spain had given him permission to settle 300 Anglo families in Texas • Moses Austin would never bring settlers to Texas • The pneumonia he developed was killing him • Governor Martínez legally transferred Moses Austin’s Land Grant to Stephen F Austin in 1821 • Next Stephen had to choose the best location for his colony • Austin chose a location between the Lavaca and San Jacinto Rivers • Was 27 years old and living in Arkansas, where he was pursuing a legal career • When he learned of his fathers dying wish he traveled to Texas to meet with Governor Martínez • Austin required all colonists to: • Pledge their loyalty to Spain • Become Catholic • Have good character • Be able to provide for themselves • Be willing to accept hard times

    8. Early Problems Austin purchased a boat (The Lively) to transport colonist to Texas The Lively brought the settlers to the Brazos instead of the Colorado River Some frustrated colonists returned to the U.S. Drought Attacks by the Karankawas Despite these problems Austin’s Colony prospered In 1822 Austin faced his biggest challenge yet Austin learned that Mexico had gained it’s independence from Spain Austin’s land grant had been issued by Spain not Mexico Land Farmers receive 640 acres Ranchers receive 4,428 acres United States Texas 2 3 1 Empresarios • The Old Three Hundred • The name given to the original 300 families to move to Austin’s Colony • Jane Long • Jared Groce • Robert M Williamson • “Three-Legged Willie • Cost • The cost of land in the U.S. was $1.25 per acre • Austin offered land a 12.5¢ per acre

    9. Stephen F Austin was made an empresario (land agent) by the new Mexican government Austin received additional land Austin’s colonist’s where exempted from paying taxes Colonists were given homestead rights It stood for Gone To Texas By 1830 the Texas population had grown to 20,000 Empresarios • Mexico City • Stephen F Austin made the 1,000 mile journey to Mexico City in hopes of securing his land grant • Austin would remain in Mexico City for an entire year • While there he learned to speak Spanish and gained the trust of Mexican officials • Empresario Austin • “The Father of Texas” • The nickname given to Stephen F Austin because he was the first and most successful empresario • Other Empresarios • Green DeWitt • 2nd most important Empresario • Founded town of Gonzales in 1825 • Martin de Leon • Settled Mexican families in Texas • Founded town of Victoria in 1829 • G.T.T. • Became a common sight in on doors across the U.S. in the 1820’s

    10. Texas Population