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Plant Reproduction. Click to Enter. Instructions. Ensure that you complete all activities and worksheets when instructed to do so. The pad icon will indicate when you should fill in your worksheet.

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plant reproduction

Plant Reproduction

Click to Enter

instructions
Instructions
  • Ensure that you complete all activities and worksheets when instructed to do so. The pad icon will indicate when you should fill in your worksheet.
  • Work your way through the presentation by clicking on the background to move to the next page or to activate an animation. The mouse icon will indicate that a click will activate an animation or require buttons to be pressed in the quizzes.
  • You can navigate around the presentation by using the arrow links that appear when you place your cursor on the lower left hand part of the screen.
  • Some slides have embedded movies which will start when you click on the image. The video camera symbol tells you when a movie is available. There is sound so you may want to wear headphones if people are working near you.
  • You can return to the home page by clicking on the clickbiology icon.
  • At the end of the module there is a test that will provide a results page which you will print off and hand in to your teacher.
  • The speaker symbol means that there are some audio explanation available for the slide
plant reproduction home page
Plant Reproduction Home Page

4

1

Seed dispersal

Flower structure

5

2

Germination

Pollination

3

6

Test

Fruit development

flowers are the reproductive organs of plants
Flowers are the reproductive organs of plants

Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test

click image to view a video on plant reproduction
Click image to view a video on plant reproduction

If the hyperlink does not work then copy and paste this url into a new browser window and you can watch the video then, url:

http://vimeo.com/1594037?pg=embed&sec=1594037

Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test

flower structure
Flower structure

stigma

anther

style

carpel

stamen

filament

ovary

ovule

petal

sepal

receptacle

peduncle

Flower StructurePollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination Test

structure and function of the flower
Structure and function of the flower

stigma

anther

style

carpel

stamen

filament

ovary

ovule

petal

sepal

receptacle

peduncle

Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test

flower structure quiz
Flower Structure Quiz
  • What is the name of the structure labelled X in the diagram?

carpel

sepal

X

stamen

peduncle

Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test

flower structure quiz9
Flower Structure Quiz
  • Where is pollen made?

stigma

sepal

anther

ovary

Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test

flower structure quiz10
Flower Structure Quiz
  • Where is the ovule found in a flower?

petals

style

nectary

ovary

Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test

flower structure quiz11
Flower Structure Quiz
  • Which parts of the flower are labelled below:

X = style, Y = stigma

X

X = filament, Y = anther

Y

X = stigma, Y = style

X = anther, Y = filament

Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test

pollination
Pollination

The pollen grain contains the male sex cell (gamete)

Flower StructurePollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test

pollination is the transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma
Pollination is the transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma
  • This is an example of cross-pollination as the pollen travels from one flower to a different flower. This is desirable in plants as it promotes variation.

Flower StructurePollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test

pollen can be carried between flowers by insects or by wind
Pollen can be carried between flowers by insects or by wind

Flower StructurePollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test

insect pollinated flowers are adapted to attract insects to them to enable transfer of pollen
Insect-pollinated flowers are adapted to attract insects to them to enable transfer of pollen

Pollen has barbs for hooking onto insect fur

nectar and a scent present

Anthers positioned to rub pollen onto insects

Sticky stigma to collect pollen

Brightly coloured petals

Flower StructurePollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test

slide16

Wind-pollinated flowers are different in structure because they do not have to attract insects to them but do need to be exposed to the wind.

Pollen grains are very small and light. They occur in very large numbers

Anthers are exposed to the wind so that pollen can easily be blown away

Stigma are feathery to catch pollen carried on wind

Petals are small and green as there is no need to attract insects

No scent or nectary

Flower StructurePollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test

self pollination occurs when pollen falls from the anther onto the stigma of the same flower
Self-pollination occurs when pollen falls from the anther onto the stigma of the same flower
  • Self-pollination is not desirable as it reduces variation

Flower StructurePollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test

flowers will prevent self pollination by either having stigma above stamen or
Flowers will prevent self-pollination by either having stigma above stamen or…

Flower StructurePollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test

by having stamen and stigma mature at different times
…by having stamen and stigma mature at different times.

Flower StructurePollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test

click on the icons below to view the summary videos on pollination
Click on the icons below to view the summary videos on pollination

If the hyperlink does not work then copy and paste this url into a new browser window and you can watch the video then, url:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bZ3J4UWwd2Q

Pollination (9 minutes)

If the hyperlink does not work then copy and paste this url into a new browser window and you can watch the video then, url:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ge3EM8AERV0

Insect pollination (1 minute)

Flower StructurePollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test

pollination quiz
Pollination Quiz
  • Pollination is the transfer from….?

the stigma to anther

style to stamen

ovule to filament

anther to stigma

Flower StructurePollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination Test

pollination quiz22
Pollination Quiz
  • The two mechanisms for pollination are?

Wind and water

Insect and wind

Insect and water

Wind and birds

Flower StructurePollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test

pollination quiz23
Pollination Quiz
  • Cross-pollination…

Increases variation

Decreases variation

Is only performed by insects

Is only performed by wind

Flower StructurePollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test

pollination quiz24
Pollination Quiz
  • Flowers are adapted for wind-pollination by…

Having bright petals and a scent

Having a nectary

Having feathery stigmas

Having sticky stigmas

Flower StructurePollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination Test

fertilisation and fruit development
Fertilisation and Fruit Development

Flower StructurePollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination Test

once pollination occurs a tube grows from the pollen grain down through the style to the ovule
Once pollination occurs a tube grows from the pollen grain down through the style to the ovule

stigma

style

carpel

ovary

ovule

Note: Petals not shown in order to simplify diagram

Flower StructurePollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination Test

fertilisation occurs when the male gamete fuses with the ovule the female gamete
Fertilisation occurs when the male gamete fuses with the ovule (the female gamete)

Flower StructurePollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination Test

watch this short introductory video to review fertilisation 1 minute
Watch this short introductory video to review fertilisation (1 minute)

If the hyperlink does not work then copy and paste this url into a new browser window and you can watch the video then, url:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pVhH2GPlckE

seed dispersal
Seed Dispersal

Flower StructurePollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination Test

watch the video on seed dispersal lasts just under 10 minutes
Watch the video on seed dispersal (lasts just under 10 minutes)

If the hyperlink does not work then copy and paste this url into a new browser window and you can watch the video then, url:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zbQ1jWl3AOM

slide31

After fertilisation the petals, stamen and sepals fall off.

The ovule turns into a seed, the fertilised egg inside develops into an embryo plant.

Cotyledon:

Food store

Testa:

tough seed coat

Plumule:

Embryo shoot

Micropyle:

Hole made by pollen tube

Embryo

plant

Radicle:Embryo root

Flower StructurePollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination Test

slide32
Water leaves the seed, it dehydrates and becomes dormant because metabolic reactions stop.The ovary develops to become a fruit.

Fleshy wall

of the ovary

(yes, you are eating an adapted ovary when you

crunch into an apple!

seed

Flower StructurePollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination Test

slide33
Seeds need to be dispersed away from the parent plant in order to reduce competition for space, light, nutrients and water.
  • Seeds can be dispersed by:
  • Wind
  • Water
  • Mechanical
  • Animals
seed dispersal quiz
Seed dispersal quiz
  • Which mechanism for dispersal is used by the seed shown in the picture

water

mechanical

wind

animal

Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test

seed dispersal quiz35
Seed dispersal quiz
  • Which mechanism for dispersal is used by the seed shown in the picture

mechanical

animal

water

wind

Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test

seed dispersal quiz36
Seed dispersal quiz
  • Which mechanism for dispersal is used by the seed shown in the picture

water

wind

animal

mechanical

Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test

seed dispersal quiz37
Seed dispersal quiz
  • Which mechanism for dispersal is used by the seed shown in the picture

animal

mechanical

water

wind

Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test

germination
Germination

Flower Structure Pollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination Test

the seed contains the embryo plant and cotyledons starch stores
The seed contains the embryo plant and cotyledons (starch stores)

Testa

Water enters the seed through the micropyle and activates enzymes.

The water also softens the testa to allow it to split.

Plumule

(embryo shoot)

Radicle

(embryo root)

Cotyledon

Micropyle

Flower Structure Pollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination Test

enzymes are used in seed germination
Enzymes are used in seed germination

amylase

secreted

Plumule

The enzymes break starch down into maltose and then glucose. The glucose is used in respiration to provide energy for growth

starch

embryo plant

absorbed

maltose

Radicle

This is the first part to grow out of the seed as it needs to absorb more water

Flower Structure Pollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination Test

whilst germinating the plant uses food stores in the cotyledon to provide energy for growth
Whilst germinating the plant uses food stores in the cotyledon to provide energy for growth

light

The seedling can now photosynthesise and make its own food

germination

Plant growth and development

soil

Flower Structure Pollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination Test

changes in dry mass of the germinating seed
Changes in dry mass of the germinating seed:

Dry mass/g

Days

Seed loses weight as it uses up starch stores in the cotyledons as the seedling cannot photosynthesise yet

Weight increases as the seedling can photosynthesise and plant grows

Dry mass is the mass of solid matter with all water removed

Flower Structure Pollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination Test

conditions required for germination
Conditions required for germination

Pyrogallol (absorbs oxygen)

No light

Oxygen present

Oxygen present

Oxygen present

Oxygen present

No oxygen

moist

moist

moist

moist

dry

4oC

A

Warm

B

Warm

C

Warm

E

Warm

D

Flower Structure Pollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination Test

slide44
END

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