6.0 Fuels: Oil/Natural Gas
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6.0 Fuels: Oil/Natural Gas. Frank R. Leslie, B. S. E. E., M. S. Space Technology 1/28/2010, Rev. 2.1.1 fleslie @fit.edu; (321) 674-7377 www.fit.edu/~fleslie. Rootsweb.ancestry.com. In Other News . . . .

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Slide1 l.jpg

6.0 Fuels: Oil/Natural Gas

Frank R. Leslie,

B. S. E. E., M. S. Space Technology

1/28/2010, Rev. 2.1.1

fleslie @fit.edu; (321) 674-7377

www.fit.edu/~fleslie

Rootsweb.ancestry.com


In other news l.jpg
In Other News . . .

  • Chrysler developing ENVI plug-in hybrid vehicle drive for many models, but Fiat may own them by then

  • Large oil companies are under Federal ruling on January 20, 2009 in the Southern District of Florida because of ethanol-containing boat fuel. The fuel destroys fiberglass fuel tanks, absorbs water and phase separation. --- Maritime Reporter 1/27/09

    • Lawsuit filed in Tampa to recover damages Jan., 2010 --- could be huge settlement

  • Pres. Obama stated that he wants offshore oil drilling in the State of the Union address, also nuclear plus weatherization of buildings

    • High speed rail at 168 to 180 mph in Florida

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6 events oil and coal to liquids ctl l.jpg
6. Events: Oil and Coal-to-Liquids (CTL)

  • 1955 South African Sasol CTL started

  • 1973 Arab oil embargo due to Israel-Egypt Six-Day War

  • 1981 Saudi Ghawar field peaked at 5.7Mbbl/day

  • 1990 Iraq invaded Kuwait

  • 1991 First Gulf War

  • 3/19/2003 US invades Iraq

  • 2005 Kuwait’s second largest Burgan field exhausted, 1.7Mbbl/day

  • 10/2008 Crude hits $147/bbl intraday high

  • 2009 Crude oil falls to $33

  • 1/20/2009 Crude oil at $38, $46 on 1/23/09, $73 1/2010

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6 0 1 overview oil and natural gas l.jpg
6.0.1 Overview: Oil and Natural Gas

  • Petroleum or crude oil is a complex hydrocarbon mixture (mostly gasoline) that is refined to get its constituents or feedstock for chemical transformations

  • Oil (crude) and natural gas are often found in the same area, and thus are treated together in this presentation

  • Oil provides our principal transportation fuels of gasoline and diesel, while natural gas provides heating

  • Coal-to-liquids results in primarily gasoline-like fluids and is just mentioned here

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6.0 Overview: Oil and Natural Gas Reserves

Revised 030124

Ref.: National Energy Technology Lab. Why Combustion? CD_ROM

Quads normalize the energy


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6.0 About This Presentation

  • 6.1 Oil Consumption

  • 6.2 Oil Refining

  • 6.3 Natural Gas

  • 6.4 Natural Gas Turbine Peaking Power

  • 6.5 Oil/Gas Reserves

  • 6.6 Oil/Gas Transportation

  • Conclusion

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6 1 oil source and sink chart l.jpg

http://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/oil_gas/petroleum/analysis_publications/oil_market_basics/petflow.htmhttp://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/oil_gas/petroleum/analysis_publications/oil_market_basics/petflow.htm

6.1 Oil Source and Sink Chart

Petroleum Flow,  2006(Million Barrels per Day)

Source:   Oil Market Basics

http://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/oil_gas/petroleum/analysis_publications/oil_market_basics/default.htm

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6 1 1 amount of oil to be produced and consumed l.jpg
6.1.1 Amount of oil to be produced and consumedhttp://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/oil_gas/petroleum/analysis_publications/oil_market_basics/petflow.htm

  • The World consumption of oil was some 74,500,000 barrels of oil per day in 2000

    • What does this large number represent, and how can we relate to it?[What do 2 million Mac hamburgers look like?]

  • Some interesting figures follow by permission of Jim Woodfin, former Chair of the Sierra Club Turtle Coast Group, Melbourne FL (January, 2003 group meeting)

  • http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/

    100124


    6 1 1 1 matters of scale world oil consumption l.jpg
    6.1.1.1 Matters of Scale: World Oil Consumptionhttp://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/oil_gas/petroleum/analysis_publications/oil_market_basics/petflow.htm

    • How can we relate to such large numbers?

    • 74,500,000 Barrels Per Day (year 2000)

    • 3,129,000,000 Gallons Per Day

    • 130,375,000 Gallons Per Hour

    • 2,172,917 Gallons Per Minute

    • 36,215 Gallons Per Second

    030129


    6 1 1 2a matters of scale world oil consumption l.jpg
    6.1.1.2a Matters of Scale: World Oil Consumptionhttp://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/oil_gas/petroleum/analysis_publications/oil_market_basics/petflow.htm

    • 36,215 Gal/Sec of Oil flowing in West Brevard County

    • ? Gal/Sec – St. Johns River @ Melbourne, Florida

    Revised 030124


    6 1 1 2b matters of scale world oil consumption l.jpg
    6.1.1.2b Matters of Scale: World Oil Consumptionhttp://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/oil_gas/petroleum/analysis_publications/oil_market_basics/petflow.htm

    • 36,215 Gal/Sec of Oil flowing in the St. Johns River?

    • ? Gal/Sec – St. Johns River @ Melbourne, Florida

    River Flowgallons/second3,115 average

    9,000 high

    Water digitally “replaced” with oil

    100124


    6 1 1 3a matters of scale world oil consumption l.jpg
    6.1.1.3a Matters of Scale: World Oil Consumptionhttp://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/oil_gas/petroleum/analysis_publications/oil_market_basics/petflow.htm

    • 36,215 Gal/Sec of Oil

    • ? Gal/Sec – St. Johns River @ Jacksonville FL

    Revised 030124


    6 1 1 3b matters of scale world oil consumption l.jpg
    6.1.1.3b Matters of Scale: World Oil Consumptionhttp://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/oil_gas/petroleum/analysis_publications/oil_market_basics/petflow.htm

    • 36,215 Gal/Sec of Oil

    • ? Gal/Sec – St. Johns River @ Jacksonville FL

    43,610 gallons/second

    A little too much!

    070121


    6 1 1 4a matters of scale world oil consumption l.jpg
    6.1.1.4a Matters of Scale: World Oil Consumptionhttp://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/oil_gas/petroleum/analysis_publications/oil_market_basics/petflow.htm

    • 36,215 Gal/Sec of Oil

    • How Long to fill Lake Okeechobee?(1,200,000,000,000 gallons)

    Revised 030124


    6 1 1 4b matters of scale world oil consumption l.jpg
    6.1.1.4b Matters of Scale: World Oil Consumptionhttp://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/oil_gas/petroleum/analysis_publications/oil_market_basics/petflow.htm

    • 36,215 Gal/Sec of Oil

    • How Long to fill Lake Okeechobee?(1,200,000,000,000 gallons)

    394 days

    Revised 030124


    6 1 2 1 oil history a chronology l.jpg
    6.1.2.1 Oil History – A chronologyhttp://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/oil_gas/petroleum/analysis_publications/oil_market_basics/petflow.htm

    • Oil was first discovered in ancient times, and asphalt was used to caulk the seams of ships

    • 1814 First oil well in Caldwell, Ohio discovered oil instead of salt water; Darn! (:-((www.aoghs.org

    • 1829 Oil discovered in Burkesville KY; 50,000 bbls total; they wanted salt water − Why? Hint: foodhttp://www.fohbc.com/images/American%20Oil.pdf

    • 1850 Samuel Kerr distilled oil shale to produce oil

    • 1857 E. L. Drake hired to drill for industrial oil in Pennsylvania

    • 1866 First “gusher” in Texas

    • 1866 PA oil was about $6 a barrel (~$35, 2004; $73, 2010)

    • 1901 Lucas Spindletop “gusher” near Beaumont, Texas, and “Big Oil” began

    http://www.sjgs.com/history.html

    100128


    6 1 2 old oil well field in pennsylvania l.jpg
    6.1.2 Old Oil Well Field in Pennsylvaniahttp://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/oil_gas/petroleum/analysis_publications/oil_market_basics/petflow.htm

    • See http://www.greentechhistory.com/2009/08/gallery-the-worlds-first-oil-field/ for a 3-D photo; adjust browser photo width to match your eye spacing, stare at infinity, and watch the well pop into 3-D

    • There are perhaps 20 stereopticon slides at this site

    http://www.greentechhistory.com/2009/08/gallery-the-worlds-first-oil-field/


    6 1 2 2 oil history a chronology l.jpg
    6.1.2.2 Oil History – A chronologyhttp://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/oil_gas/petroleum/analysis_publications/oil_market_basics/petflow.htm

    • 1901 Oil found in Louisiana

    • 1905 Oil found in California

    • 1920 Chevron-Texaco prospecting in the Middle East

    • 1932 California Arabian Standard Oil Company found oil in Bahrain

    • 1938 SOCAL discovered oil at Damman, Kuwait

    • In the 1950s, oil and natural gas replaced coal due to the lower pollution and ease of use; natural gas predominated

    • Oil is produced mainly in Saudi Arabia, Russia, and US

    • Some important products are plastics, detergents, drugs, fertilizers, pesticides, explosives, paint rubber, epoxies, recording disks, Crayons

    • Known reserves will be economically gone in mid-21st century (2050)

    090124


    6 2 oil refining l.jpg
    6.2 Oil Refininghttp://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/oil_gas/petroleum/analysis_publications/oil_market_basics/petflow.htm

    • Crude oil contains many compounds; not homogenous

    • Refining separates the various compounds by evaporation temperature (fractional distillation)

    • Conversion causes chemical changes to make a different product by recombining the molecular chains

      • Methane (CH4), 1 C; propane, 3C; butane, 4C; pentane, 5C; hexane, 6C; heptane, 7C; octane, 8C

    • Octane rating is percentage of octane mixed with heptane and determines pre-ignition point in a standard engine (knocking is bad for the engine)

    • See http://www.howstuffworks.com/oil-refining2.htm for a good animated drawing of distilling crude oil

    090124


    6 2 1 crude oil is a complex mixture l.jpg

    The mixture contains many useful products that must be refined out of the crude oil

    Distillate fuel oil is “diesel” oil or home heating oil

    Gasoline, a complex mixture, is much of the barrel

    6.2.1 Crude Oil is A Complex Mixture!

    http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/chapter08.html

    090124


    6 2 9 will oil shale save us l.jpg
    6.2.9 Will Oil Shale Save Us? refined out of the crude oil

    Colorado mined a lot in ~1970s before cheap oil returned

    From Peoples Gas briefing to FECC


    6 3 natural gas ng history a chronology l.jpg
    6.3 refined out of the crude oilNatural Gas (NG) History – A chronology

    • 6000-2000 yr BCE Gas seeps discovered in Iran

    • Marco Polo saw gas seeps in 1264 at Baku

      • "Eternal Fires of the Apsheron Peninsula“ http://www.sjgs.com/history.html#baku

    • 1659 Gas discovered in England

    • 1815 NG found in US while digging a well for salt brine

    • 1859 Fredonia Gas Light Co. formed (West New York)

    • 1860 Liquefied natural gas used as a portable fuel

    • 1885 Coffee roasted by NG and air flame

    • 1905 NG discovered in California

    • 1918 Texas well produced 70 million cubic feet of gas per day

    http://hearth.com/what/gashistory.html

    090124


    6 3 1 natural gas heating values l.jpg
    6.3.1 Natural Gas Heating Values refined out of the crude oil

    Heat content affects the price(true of hot peppers, too! [see Scoville units])

    Zerban and Nye, 1952

    100124


    6 3 2 butane propane etc energy densities l.jpg
    6.3.2 Butane, Propane, Etc. Energy Densities refined out of the crude oil

    Harder, 1982; Zerban and Nye, 1952

    060115


    6 4 1 gas turbine peaking systems such as oleander energy plant at cocoa fl l.jpg
    6.4.1 Gas Turbine Peaking Systems refined out of the crude oil such as Oleander Energy Plant at Cocoa FL

    • $200M, 650 MW peaking plant west of Cocoa near I-95

    • Located close to gas pipeline and transmission lines

    • Five 150 MW aeroderivative gas turbines spin generators (derived from aircraft engines)

    • Muffled hot exhaust is directed straight up into the air

    • A more-efficient design would use heat recovery steam generators to cool the exhaust by making steam

    • That type of combined cycle plant would not qualify under the previous PURPA law, so that wasn’t built

    • PURPA was intended for solar and wind energy systems, but was written inadvertently such that other merchant plants could be licensed; “unintended consequences”

    100128


    6 4 2 oleander energy plant 600 mw l.jpg
    6.4.2 Oleander Energy Plant -- 600 MW refined out of the crude oil

    • 5 x 160 MW

    • The turbine is directly coupled to the generator and jointly turns at 3,600 RPM. The first four combustion turbines produce electricity at 18,000 volts before being “stepped up” in a transformer to 230,000 volts for transmission, while the 5th combustion turbine produces electricity at 18,000 volts before being “stepped up” in a transformer to 138,000 volts for transmission.

    Now owned by the Southern Company

    http://www.southerncompany.com/southernpower/pdfs/SP_Plant_Oleander.pdf

    http://www.constellation.com/generation/oleander.asp

    090127


    6 4 3 the mighty snow natural gas engine l.jpg
    6.4.3 The Mighty Snow Natural Gas Engine refined out of the crude oil

    This Snow engine ran on natural gas in a New Jersey water plant

    It produced 400hp, less than some SUVs

    It’s now in the Florida Flywheelers Museum near Ft. Meade, FL

    (Sorry, I could only get the right end in the photo)

    Photo by F. Leslie, 2003

    Feb 24 thru 28, 2009 - 18th Annual Antique Engine & Tractor Show www.floridaflywheelers.org/


    6 5 1 estimated crude oil reserves l.jpg
    6.5.1 Estimated Crude Oil Reserves refined out of the crude oil

    • Production Oil in billion barrels to May 2009

    hslu.wordpress.com/2009/08/13

    http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/2

    100128


    6 5 1 us imported crude oil 2003 l.jpg
    6.5.1 US Imported Crude Oil --- 2003 refined out of the crude oil

    Crude Oil Imports (Top 15 Countries) (Thousand Barrels per Day)

    http://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/oil_gas/petroleum/data_publications/company_level_imports/current/import.html

    100128


    6 5 2 estimated natural gas reserves l.jpg
    6.5.2 Estimated Natural Gas Reserves refined out of the crude oil

    • Natural Gas in trillion cubic feet

    http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/25opec/sld015.htm

    090127


    6 6 oil gas transportation l.jpg
    6.6 Oil/Gas Transportation refined out of the crude oil

    • LNG is vented at ~100 psi

    • NG is piped to customers at ~0.5 psi

    http://www.nkk.co.jp/en/jigyosho/tsu/text_02.html

    LNG Tankers

    http://www.ieagreen.org.uk/lngtank.jpg

    Oil Tanker

    http://www.kmss.no/www/01/wProd.nsf/AllWeb/14CE017B56B8367FC125694A006CE37D?OpenDocument

    090127


    Conclusion oil natural gas l.jpg
    Conclusion: Oil & Natural Gas refined out of the crude oil

    • Oil is an energy-dense liquid, easy to store and transport, and thus works well in vehicles

    • Many chemicals are made from oil, thus burning it may prevent a better, higher use for materials

    • Choices are made from the economics and cost of doing business; supply and demand sets prices

    • Natural gas is the feedstock for fertilizers, plastics, etc.

      • 97% of hydrogen is now made from natural gas

      • How can enough hydrogen be made to replace existing transportation fuels?

    090127


    References books l.jpg
    References: Books refined out of the crude oil

    • Pickens, T. Boone. The First Million is the Hardest. NY: Crown Business, 2008, p. 136.

    • Harder, Edwin L. Fundamentals of Energy Production. NY: John Wiley & Sons, 1982.

    • Zerban, Alexander H. and Edwin P. Nye. Power Plants. Scranton: International Textbook Co., 1952.

    • Anon. Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., 2002.

    • Brower, Michael. Cool Energy. Cambridge MA: The MIT Press, 1992. 0-262-02349-0, TJ807.9.U6B76, 333.79’4’0973.

    • Duffie, John and William A. Beckman. Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes. NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 920 pp., 1991

    • Gipe, Paul. Wind Energy for Home & Business. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Pub. Co., 1993. 0-930031-64-4, TJ820.G57, 621.4’5

    • Patel, Mukund R. Wind and Solar Power Systems. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1999, 351 pp. ISBN 0-8493-1605-7, TK1541.P38 1999, 621.31’2136

    • Sørensen, Bent. Renewable Energy, Second Edition. San Diego: Academic Press, 2000, 911 pp. ISBN 0-12-656152-4.

    090124


    References websites etc l.jpg
    References: Websites, etc. refined out of the crude oil

    Woodfin, Jim. Personal communication. Slides on oil rate from a Sierra Club meeting, 1/23/2003

    http://www.naturalgas.org/

    http://www.sjgs.com/history.html#baku

    http://hearth.com/what/gashistory.html

    http://www.pa-roots.com/~clarion/books/caldwell/oil2.html

    http://www.koffeekorner.com/koffeehistory.htm

    http://www.howstuffworks.com/oil-refining.htm

    http://www.howstuffworks.com/oil-refining2.htm a good animated refining process

    http://www.participate.net/files/syrianaDiscussion.pdf

    http://www.silverbearcafe.com/private/expectation.html

    ______________________________________________________________________________-

    mailto:energyresources@egroups.com

    www.dieoff.org. Site devoted to the decline of energy and effects upon population

    www.ferc.gov/ Federal Energy Regulatory Commission

    www.google.com/search?q=%22renewable+energy+course%22

    solstice.crest.org/

    dataweb.usbr.gov/html/powerplant_selection.html

    080121


    Olin engineering complex 4 7 kw solar pv roof array l.jpg

    Questions? refined out of the crude oil

    Olin Engineering Complex 4.7 kW Solar PV Roof Array

    080116


    Slide36 l.jpg

    Slide stockpile follows! refined out of the crude oil

    Older slides follow this one. Look at these if you have interest or time. It’s difficult to decide what to leave out of the lecture to save time!