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Connecting small renewable energy generators to the grid in Thailand: case studies & technical requirements. Renewable Energy Forum Thursday, 28 October 2004 BITEC Bangna, Bangkok Chris Greacen Palang Thai www.palangthai.org. Outline. Very Small Power Producer (VSPP) examples Solar Wind

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Connecting small renewable energy generators to the grid in Thailand: case studies & technical requirements

Renewable Energy Forum

Thursday, 28 October 2004

BITEC Bangna, Bangkok

Chris Greacen

Palang Thai

www.palangthai.org

outline
Outline
  • Very Small Power Producer (VSPP) examples
    • Solar
    • Wind
    • Biogas
  • Technical requirements for interconnection
biogas from pig farms

Reduces air and water pollution

Produces fertilizer

Produces electricity

Biogas from Pig Farms
100 kw wind turbine
100 kW Wind turbine
  • Part of environmental training center
  • ReCycle Engineering, Chonburi
community micro hydro
Community micro-hydro
  • Mae Kam Pong village, Chiang Mai
  • 40 kW
  • Community cooperative
  • Expected gross revenues: 30,000 baht/month
korat waste to energy biogas
Korat Waste to Energy - biogas
  • Uses waste water from cassava
  • Removes 99% of COD
  • Produces gas for all factory heat + 5 MW of electricity
korat waste to energy biogas1
Korat Waste to Energy - biogas
  • 3 x 1 MW Jenbacher gas generators
technical requirements why
Technical requirements – why?
  • Utility is responsible for ensuring reliable, safe electricity for customers. Safety for workers.
  • System designed for one-way flow of electricity.
  • …but should also not impose unreasonable costs or other barriers to interconnection
technical requirements what
Technical requirements – what?
  • Must not island
  • Voltage (PEA):19.8kV – 24.2kV (nominal = 22 kV)
  • Frequency:50 Hz +/- 0.5. Disconnect within 0.1 sec
  • Power factor:>0.85

(This list not complete.)

technical requirements relays
Technical requirements – relays
  • 59/27 Overvoltage and undervoltage
  • 50/51, 50N/51N Phase & ground overcurrent
  • 59N Zero sequence overvoltage
  • 67/67N Directional & gnd overcurrent
  • 81 Over/under frequency
  • 25 Synchronizing check
integrated digital relay
Integrated digital relay

BE1-GPS100

BASLER ELECTRIC

www.basler.com

BECKWITH ELECTRIC

www.beckwithelectric.com

resources for vspp www netmeter org
Resources for VSPPwww.netmeter.org
  • VSPP regulations (Thai)http://www.netmeter.org/th/regs/docs/VSPP_regulation.pdf
  • Interconnection application formhttp://www.netmeter.org/th/regs/docs/connection_form.pdf
  • Sample tariff calculationshttp://www.palangthai.org/en/docs/SampleTariffCalculation-new.xls
for more information
For more information

Contact:

Tel. 02-674-2533

chris@palangthai.org

www.palangthai.org

aggregate net metering
Village is metered as a single customer

Collection of tariffs from individual households and maintenance of local lines is the responsibility of the REE.

Aggregate Net Metering

M

meter

Utility’s responsibility

Village’s responsibility

objectives of power purchase from vspps
Objectives of Power Purchase from VSPPs
  • To promote efficient use of domestic natural resources and reduce dependency on the use of commercial fuels
  • To open up an opportunity for remote areas to participate in electricity generation
  • To alleviate the government’s budgetary burden to invest in electricity generation and distribution systems
sticking points
Sticking points…
  • Expensive interconnection requirements
  • VAT tax issue unresolved
  • Concession by Department of Energy Business, Ministry of Energy
  • Lack of awareness among potential customer generators
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Today's

Central Utility

Tomorrow's

Distributed Utility?

Central Generation

Central Generation

Wind

RemoteLoads

Genset

Fuel Cell

Battery

PV

Customer Efficiency

Customers

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© Distributed Utility Associates, Used with Permission