RENEWABLE ENERGY. AS Source Of Clean Electrical Generation By Prof. Mohamed A. H. El-Sayed. World Electricity Consumption 2003-2030. World CO 2 Emission. Challenges. Increase amount of CO 2 as a result of fossil fuel combustion.
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AS Source Of Clean
Prof. Mohamed A. H. El-Sayed
-Fossil fuel resources are finite and run out
in 40 a.
-Reserves of fossil fuels are found at limited
number of location and require transmission
to load centers.
• Large Single Inverter Type (Central Inverter)
• Multiple Small Inverter Type (String Inverter)
• DC Bus (Multi-string Inverter)
• “AC” Module
Combined Cycle power plant consists of :
-Two natural gas Turbines of about 41.5 MW
-Two Heat Recovery Steam Generators.
-One steam turbine of about 68 MW.
-Clean source of Energy.
-Lowest-priced renewable technologies 4 to 6 cent/kWh.
-Noise produced by the rotor blades.
-Birds have been killed by flying into the rotors. These problems have been resolved by properly sitting wind plants.
Type of Wind Turbines:
-Average Wind Speed (M/s) 9
-Firm Capacity Factor (%) 43
-Availability Factor (%) 98.8
-Generated Electricity/year (GWh) 378
-Fuel Saving (Thou. Ton) 82
-CO2 Reduction (Thou. Ton) 204
WTGs Conv. Cap. Subs.
300 150 600 260
CPROBold(X) = Cumulative probability of X MW on outage for the existing table
CPROBNEW(X) = Cumulative probability of X MW on outage for the new table
long lifetimes. (more than 40,000 hours).
The input signal to PI is error
desired load power
PL load power
PI output control signal for control valve Vc.
Barbados 1000 9.5
Cuba 30000 14.5
TT 129000 3087
TT gas intensive industries such as steel, fertilizer and Petrochemicals
in Trinidad and Tobago
in Trinidad and Tobago
Distribution Network Planning:
-Upgrade existing Network With DG
-Invest in DG using Renewable Energy
Stochastic Generation Planningin free market:
-Uncertain input data by unit commitment
-Probabilistic Scenario Tree
Modeling of DG
Modeling of distribution network
Complete model of distribution network containing DG
DG optimal size & site
from an investment point of view
-Improved Power reliability and Quality
-Ability to allow high penetration of renewable generation.
-T&D support in Distribution areas.
-Emission reduction compared to centralized utility.
-Economic potential and high efficiency.
-Stochastic multi-Stage optimization represents an efficient technique for considering uncertainties in generation and trading planning.
-A second integrated risk management shall plan the generation and trading and manage the risks at the same time.