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RENEWABLE ENERGY. AS Source Of Clean Electrical Generation By Prof. Mohamed A. H. El-Sayed. World Electricity Consumption 2003-2030. World CO 2 Emission. Challenges. Increase amount of CO 2 as a result of fossil fuel combustion.

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renewable energy

AS Source Of Clean

Electrical Generation


Prof. Mohamed A. H. El-Sayed

  • Increase amount of CO2 as a result of fossil fuel combustion.
  • Doubling CO2 content in atmosphere leads to temperature rise of 4.5 o C
  • The fossil fuel world economy has 2 C/C:

-Fossil fuel resources are finite and run out

in 40 a.

-Reserves of fossil fuels are found at limited

number of location and require transmission

to load centers.

alternatives to fossil fuels
Alternatives to Fossil Fuels
  • The alternatives to fossil fuels are renewable energy including:
    • Solar energy
    • Wind energy
    • Fuel cells
  • Shell’s study indicated that half of the world’s energy need in year 2050 will be supplied by renewable resources.
  • Therefore, a lot of R&D work still remains to be done in this area such as cost reduction, efficient and optimal mode of operation.
pv grid energy system configurations
PV/Grid Energy System Configurations

• Large Single Inverter Type (Central Inverter)

• Multiple Small Inverter Type (String Inverter)

• DC Bus (Multi-string Inverter)

• “AC” Module

kuraymat hybrid solar thermal plant
Kuraymat Hybrid Solar Thermal Plant
  • The project site 90 km south Cairo 2x150 MW
  • An uninhabited flat desert land.
  • High intensity direct solar radiation reaches to 2400 kWh /m2 / year.
  • An extended unified power grid and expanded natural gas pipelines.
  • Near to the sources of water.
solar field
Solar Field
  • The total area of the solar collectors is about 130000 m2 tracking the sun from east to west while rotating on a north-south axis.
  • A heat transfer fluid (HTF), (typically synthetic oil) heated to a temperature up to 400 oC. The fluid is pumped to a heat exchanger to generate steam introducing it to the Steam Turbine (ST) to generate electricity.
power block
Power Block


Combined Cycle power plant consists of :

-Two natural gas Turbines of about 41.5 MW

-Two Heat Recovery Steam Generators.

-One steam turbine of about 68 MW.

-Cooling system

wind energy
Wind Energy


-Clean source of Energy.

-Lowest-priced renewable technologies 4 to 6 cent/kWh.


-Noise produced by the rotor blades.

-Birds have been killed by flying into the rotors. These problems have been resolved by properly sitting wind plants.

wind turbines
Wind Turbines

Type of Wind Turbines:

  • -Most of Wind turbines being used today are horizontal-axis type.
  • -Horizontal-axis wind turbines typically either have two or three blades.
  • -Utility-scale turbines range in size from 100 kW to several MW.
  • -Larger turbines are grouped together into wind farm, which provide bulk power to electrical grid.
wind power calculation

Available power

Power coefficient

Tip-speed ratio

Generator speed has to be

changed from 1000 to 2000 rpm

Wind speed changes

from 7 to 13 m/s

Wind Power Calculation


technical indicators of 2003 2004 zafarana wind farm 140 mw
Technical Indicators of 2003/2004 Zafarana Wind Farm (140 MW)

-Average Wind Speed (M/s) 9

-Firm Capacity Factor (%) 43

-Availability Factor (%) 98.8

-Generated Electricity/year (GWh) 378

-Fuel Saving (Thou. Ton) 82

-CO2 Reduction (Thou. Ton) 204

substitution capacity of wind energy
Substitution Capacity of Wind Energy

WTGs Conv. Cap. Subs.

(MW) (MW)

300 150 600 260

900 347

impact of wind energy on system reliability
Impact of wind energy on system reliability


CPROBold(X) = Cumulative probability of X MW on outage for the existing table

CPROBNEW(X) = Cumulative probability of X MW on outage for the new table

fuel cells as future generation of electrical energy
Fuel Cells as Future generation of Electrical Energy
  • Fuel cells are electrochemical devices, which efficiently convert energy in a hydrocarbon fuel directly into electricity without prior combustion and with no moving parts.
  • The process is the opposite of electrolysis.
  • Most fuel cells operate on hydrogen

and oxygen.

main advantages of fc
Main Advantages of FC
  • Compared to ICE’s
    • High efficiencies..
    • Silent operation
    • Low or nonexistent emissions
    • Fuel Cells have excellent partial-load


    • No moving mechanical parts  less wear &

long lifetimes. (more than 40,000 hours).

  • Compared to Batteries
    • Significantly greater energy density.
    • Instant refilling
proposed fc control of transportation system

Power System of the Fuel Cell

Control Valve

Induction Motor

PEM Fuel Cell



Mechanical power

H2 Tank





O2 Tank

Control System

(FLC or PI controller)

Proposed FC control of Transportation System
pi controller

The input signal to PI is error

desired load power

PL load power

PI output control signal for control valve Vc.

tt greatest producer of oil ng in caribbean region
TT Greatest producer of Oil & NG in Caribbean Region


Oil(b/d) NG(MCF/d)

Barbados 1000 9.5

Cuba 30000 14.5

TT 129000 3087


TT gas intensive industries such as steel, fertilizer and Petrochemicals


Renewable Energy in Trinidad and Tobago

  • >PM Patrick Manning stated: Alternative energy is a question that we are going to consider in future.
  • Pilot project to introduce solar heating systems in tourism (Host Home) sector (1/2006-4/2008).
  • Research projects for developing polymer electrolyte membranes for PEM-FC and direct methanol DMFC.
  • Research Projects to develop lithium battery electrolyte material.

Wind Energy Research Requirements

in Trinidad and Tobago


Solar Energy Research Requirements

in Trinidad and Tobago

  • >National Policies that will promote use of solar heaters
  • >Funding programs that will promote the use of solar crop dryers and solar pumps for irrigation.
  • Decision by utility companies to use solar energy when best suited e.g.. street lighting
related ps research areas
Related PS Research Areas

Distribution Network Planning:

-Upgrade existing Network With DG

-Invest in DG using Renewable Energy

Stochastic Generation Planningin free market:

-Uncertain input data by unit commitment

-Probabilistic Scenario Tree


Modeling of Distribution Network

Modeling of DG

Modeling of distribution network

Complete model of distribution network containing DG

DG optimal size & site

from an investment point of view

Optimization technique


microgrid benefits
Microgrid Benefits

-Improved Power reliability and Quality

-Ability to allow high penetration of renewable generation.

-T&D support in Distribution areas.

-Emission reduction compared to centralized utility.

-Economic potential and high efficiency.

stochastic planning and risk management
Stochastic Planning and Risk Management

-Stochastic multi-Stage optimization represents an efficient technique for considering uncertainties in generation and trading planning.

-A second integrated risk management shall plan the generation and trading and manage the risks at the same time.