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The Southern Cone Countries of South America: A Comparative Sociological Analysis. Ted Goertzel Sociology Department Rutgers University, Camden NJ. The “Southern Cone” countries considered here are Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Uruguay and Paraguay. .
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Rutgers University, Camden NJ
The “Southern Cone” countries considered here are Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Uruguay and Paraguay.
has its major
centers in the
it is often
Portuguese versus Spanish cultural heritage
Quechua and Guarani and other native American cultures especially in Bolivia and Paraguay
Each country has its own “national culture”Comparative PerspectiveCulture
But the differences in levels of economic development may be greater than the similarities
Recurrent conflicts between adherents of nationalist, social democratic and “neoliberal” economic models
Corruption, government inefficiency and inflation are recurrent problemsComparative PerspectiveEconomics
All have a history of military dictatorship in recent decades
Political party systems differ greatlyComparative PerspectivePolitics
Democratic transition from from Fernando Henrique Cardoso to Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva as President of Brazil, January 1, 2003
Finance Minister Domingo Cavallo
Unemployed Youth Protest
January 2002 (AFP)
Killed in 1973
leader of the 1973 coup
on trial in 2003
From La Jiribilla, Havana, Cuba
Many best-selling Argentine authors are highly critical of their national culture.
President Nestor Kirchner, a Peronist from Patagonia, is fighting police corruption and keeping the lid on things
Continued resentment of the loss of the Arica port to Chile in 2884
The rebellion in Bolivia offers inspiration to anti-globalization activists who see it as a hopeful sign of global rebellion against the world capitalist system
President Carlos Mesa takes over
Evo Morales leader of Bolivia’s coca growers.
Soy un guacho del 63,
el barrio Palermo fue el que me vio crecer,
y ahí conocí al mago Pantaleón
que vive acá abajo por la calle Yaguarón.
Y una vuelta que andábamos remamados
dijo: "yo te puedo hacer que viajes al pasado"
pensé: "con la celeste dar la vuelta en el 50,
o ser un tupamaro de los 60".
Tupamaro, no me equivoqué
Tupamaro, yo quise ser
Tupamaro, le pedí al mago. (continues)
The social movement today
Uruguayan politics has been divided historically between the Colorado and Nacional or Blanco Parties, but the Encuento Progresista, a left-of-center united front has challenged the Colorados in recent elections.
Brazil with184 million people is larger than Spanish speaking South America.
It is a federation of Portuguese speaking states.
Populations of Southern Cone Countries
The Brazilian flag has 27 white five pointed stars, one for each state and the federal district, arranged in the same pattern as the night sky over Brazil, including the Southern Cross.
The slogan”Order and Progress” reflects the influence of Auguste Comte’s positivist theories in Brazilian social thought.
An excerpt from a description of the flag on a Brazilian WEB site. Portuguese is closely related to Spanish, but the pronunciation is different.
A legenda, escrita em verde, "Ordem e Progresso", é um resumo do lema de Auguste Comte, criador do Positivismo, do qual Teixeira Mendes era adepto. O lema completo era "o amor por princípio e a ordem por base; o progresso por fim." Segundo o próprio Teixeira Mendes, o objetivo do lema era mostrar que a revolução "não aboliu simplesmente a monarquia", mas que ela aspirava "fundar uma pátria de verdadeiros irmãos, dando à Ordem e ao Progresso todas as garantias que a história nos demonstra serem necessárias à sua permanente harmonia.”
Democratic transition from from Fernando Henrique Cardoso to Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva
Born 27 Oct 1945 in the interior of Pernambuco
Seventh of eight children
Father left for São Paulo and his wife’s cousin just before Lula was born
Raised in extreme poverty in the interior of Pernambuco
Mother, Dona Lindu, the dominant influence in his childhood
Born 18 June 1931 in Rio de Janeiro
First born of three
Good relationship with both parents
Raised in a family with a distinguished history
Father a leftist army officer, lawyer and politician
Paternal grandmother dominant figure at homeChildhood
Fernando Henrique with his mother and his paternal grandmother.
Lula at 3 years old with sister Maria. The clothes and shoes were loaned to him for the photograph.
Parents and siblings
Father beside a bust of FHC’s grandfather.
Grandfather on his white horse
Cardoso is a Social Democrat but is often stigmatized as a “neoliberal.” He was elected President in 1994 by an alliance between his Brazilian Social Democratic Party and the Party of the Liberal Front. He was sent to the Senate in1982 by the Brazilian Democratic Movement Party. As a youth, he was affiliated with a cultural group of the Brazilian Communist Party.
Lula growing up...
He told his brothers the best thing their father ever did for them was to leave with another woman
He rebelled against his father by getting an education and having a more successful career
He cried the first time he spent a night away from his mother - on his honeymoon
His mother strongly supported his drive to get an education
He won the struggle for his mother’s love when she broke with his two-timing fatherA Mother’s Boy
Mother and siblings moved to Santos in the back of a truck when he was seven
Worked as vendor, shoe shiner and delivery boy
Public elementary school
Mother separated from abusive husband, moved to São Paulo with children
Won admission to three-year training program as a lathe mechanic
Father encouraged him to pursue his literary and intellectual interests
Did well in school, but failed Latin exam for law school
Majored in social sciences because of interest in Brazilian nationalism
Involved with an intellectual journal linked to the Communist PartyYouth
Fernando Henrique with wife Ruth and son
Marries a fellow worker
Wife and newborn die in childbirth with poor medical care
Works as a lathe operator
Marries a widow, Marisa, who has a son
Becomes active in the metal workers union
Jailed briefly by military regime as a strike leader
Marries a fellow student and starts a family
Joins Marxist study group with friends who become leading intellectuals
Begins academic career
Forced into comfortable exile by the 1964 military coup
Becomes intellectual star in exile in Chile and FranceYoung Adulthood
Arrested by the military police in 1980 during a 41 day general strike in the industrial suburbs of Sao Paulo.
married, and showing the first PT flag which she sewed.
Decided to join the group forming the Workers Party in 1979 when the military allows multiple parties
Joins in forming an independent labor federation, the Central Única dos Trabalhadores in 1983
Joins the campaign for Direct Elections Now! in 1984
Decides not to join the Workers Party and joins the Party of the Brazilian Democratic Movement
Elected as Alternate to the Senate on MDB ticket, succeeds to Senate when Franco Montoro becomes governor of São Paulo
Joins the campaign for Direct Elections Now! in 1984Entering Politics
Suddenly, this clarity to notice
Who has always been sincere and to trust,
Without fear of being happy.
I want to see it come...
Lula-lá! A star is shining!
Lula-lá! Hope grows!
Lula-lá! In this child-Brazil and in the joy of embracing...
Lula-lá! With sincerity,
Lula-lá! For you, my first vote,
Lula-lá! To make our star shine!
Lula-lá! That's we together!
Lula-lá! It was worth the wait!
Lula-lá! My first vote
To make our star shine!
("Lula lá!", by Hilton Acioly, theme-tune of the 1989 campaign).
Upper left with Manoelzao
Lower left with Cinta Larga
and Surui Indians
conference with Finance
Minister Antonio Palocci
Lula is a social drinker whose job requires him to attend a great many social events. He also is inclined to gain weight from attending too many banquets.