Lecture 7 The Culture of Australia
Australia Australia is situated in the southern hemisphere
Australia • A federal country comprising six states: • Western Australia, • South Australia, • Queensland, • New South Wales, • Victoria • Tasmania; • and two territories: • the Northern Territory • the Australian Capital Territory
General Information • Official Languages: English, Indigenous languages (языкиаборигенов) • Population: 22,515,428people (2010) 40% - immigrants or children of immigrants 25% were born overseas 92% - European descent, 7% Asian descent, 1% Aboriginal descent.
Largest Cities • Australia – one of the most urbanized countries in the world; • about 70% of the population lives in the 10 largest cities of the country: Sydney, Canberra, Melbourne, Alice Springs, Brisbane, Townsville, etc.
Largest Cities Sydney – Australia's largest city (over 4 mln)
Largest Cities Melbourne Australia's second largest city (over 1mln)
Largest Cities Canberra, the capital of Australia (over 300,000).
Climate Australia's seasons are opposite of those in the northern hemisphere. Australian summer (in most parts of the country) is in December, January and February.
History • 70,000 years ago – first humans travelled to Australia across the sea from Indonesia. • 50,000 years ago – the ancestors of Australian Aborigines arrived in Australia.
History • European explorers: Terra Australis Incognita • 17th century – New Holland • 1688 – an English adventurer, William Dampier landed on the West Australian coast
History 1770 – the ship called Endeavour, captained by James Cook anchored in the east coast of Australia. Captain James Cook (1728-1779)
A 19th century engraving showing Australian "natives opposing the arrival of Captain James Cook" in 1770.
The First Fleet 1788 – British authorities decided that Australia is ideal for a penal colony. First Fleet: 11 ships, 1,350 people; The First Fleet in Sydney Cove, 1788
The First Fleet 26 January 1788 – the people of the First Fleet established Australia's first settlement. The First Fleet in Sydney Cove, 1788
Australia Day • 26 January – Australia Day – the founding of the modern Australian nation; for indigenous Australians– the day of mourning and protest
History: Important Dates • 1824 – The name 'Australia' was adopted • 1828 – a census showed that for the first time, free settlers outnumbered convicts. The total white population in 1828 was 36,598 (mainly in Sydney) of whom 15, 728 were convicts.
History: Important Dates • 1850s – the beginning of The Gold Rush. Australia finds new wealth and the first real wave of migration with the Gold Rush era. The Gold Rush ended in the 1870s. • 1901 – the creation of the 'Commonwealth of Australia‘.
History: Important Dates • 1902 – Australian women gain the right to vote (the secret ballot / 'Australian ballot’). • 1956 – Australia hosted the Olympics in Melbourne • In 1967 aborigines gained the right to vote. The aboriginal population had declined from 300,000 in 1788 to less than 60,000.
History: Important Dates • 1970s – the death penalty for Federal crimes was abolished, the voting age was reduced to 18 years.
History: Important Dates 1972 – the Sydney Opera House is built. It is now considered as a national treasure and an international wonder. TheSydney Opera House
History: Important Dates • In September 2000, Sydney hosts the Summer Olympics. • 2001 – Australia celebrates 100 years of Federation
Politics Australia – a constitutional monarchy with the British monarch as its head of state. The Governor General is the federal head of state and is the British monarch's representative in Australia. The Prime Minister of Australia is the leader of governing party and is elected from within the party. Two main parties - the Labor Party and the Liberal/National Country Party coalition.
Governor General Quentin Bryce– the 25th and current Governor-General of Australia since 2008 (the first woman to hold the position)
Prime Minister Julia Gillard – Australian Prime Minister since June 2010, federal leader of Australian Labor Party.
The National Anthem 1970s – the national anthem from England's 'God Save the Queen' was changed to 'Advance Australia Fair'.
The Flag The Union Jack symbolizes servitude to Great Britain, the Federation Star and The Southern Cross is a constellation visible from the southern hemisphere.
National Symbols The Coat of Arms (designed in 1886): a kangaroo and emu look at a shield depicting six Australian colonies. Beneath the Arms there are sprays of golden wattle.
National Symbols Golden wattle (австралийская акация/ мимоза) – Australia's official national floral emblem
National Gemstone Opal, since 1993; known to Indigenous people as the fire of the desert
National Sports • cricket • rugby • tennis • golf • skiing • yachting • sailing
Culture • Convict origin • Mateship • Cultural cringe • Aussies-Asians-Americans attitudes • Egalitarianism (splitting the bill, rounds, bringing our own drinks; BYO)
It’s unAustralian • To know all the words to “Advance Australia Fair” • To leave the pub when the lights are still on • To judge Australian movies by the same criteria as Hollywood movies • To feel foreign criticism of Australia is fair • To pronounce foreigners’ names correctly
Famous Australians Mel Gibson –American-born film actor, director, producer and screenwriter
Famous Australians Nicole Kidman –actress and UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador
Famous Australians Cate Blanchett –actress and stage director
Famous Australians Kylie Minogue –pop singer, songwriter and actress
Famous Australians Russell Crowe –actor
Nature: Marsupial Animals Kangaroo
Nature: Marsupial Animals Echidna
Nature: Marsupial Animals Wambat
Nature duckbilled platypus (утконос)
Nature Ostrich Emu