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River to River CWMA: Addressing the Issue of Invasive Plants in Southern Illinois. Christopher Evans, River to River CWMA Coordinator. Outline. What is a CWMA River to River CWMA Area Members Goals Invasive Plants Definitions Problems CWMA species Solutions. What is a CWMA?.

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river to river cwma addressing the issue of invasive plants in southern illinois

River to River CWMA:Addressing the Issue of Invasive Plants in Southern Illinois

Christopher Evans,

River to River CWMA Coordinator

outline
Outline
  • What is a CWMA
  • River to River CWMA
    • Area
    • Members
    • Goals
  • Invasive Plants
    • Definitions
    • Problems
    • CWMA species
  • Solutions
what is a cwma
What is a CWMA?
  • Cooperative Weed Management Area
  • Collaborative effort between multiple agencies and organizations to coordinate efforts and programs for managing invasive plants
  • Well-defined area – counties, watersheds, regions etc.
  • Different scopes – one species, suite of species, habitats, etc.
cooperation is key
Cooperation is Key

“Conservation can be achieved only be the cooperative efforts of agencies, organizations, and individuals across the nation.”

- Natural Resource Conservation Service Strategic Plan 2005-2010

river to river cwma
River to River CWMA
  • Formally established in 2006
  • Coordinator hired in April, 2007
  • Address terrestrial and aquatic non-native invasive plants in Southern Illinois
11 southernmost counties in illinois
11 Southernmost Counties in Illinois
  • Alexander
  • Gallatin
  • Hardin
  • Jackson
  • Johnson
  • Massac
  • Pope
  • Pulaski
  • Saline
  • Williamson
  • Union
river to river cwma7
River to River CWMA
  • Members
    • Shawnee National Forest
    • Illinois Department of Natural Resources
    • Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge
    • Cypress Creek National Wildlife Refuge
    • The Nature Conservancy
    • USDA Natural Resource Conservation Service
    • Illinois Department of Transportation
    • Illinois Department of Agriculture
    • University of Illinois – Extension
    • USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
    • Shawnee Resource Conservation and Development Area, Inc.
    • Southern Illinois University at Carbondale
river to river cwma goal
River to River CWMA Goal

“Work cooperatively in inventorying, monitoring, controlling, and preventing the spread of non-native invasive plants across jurisdictional boundaries in the 11 southern counties in Illinois.”

- RTR CWMA Memorandum of Understanding, 2006

river to river cwma goal10
River to River CWMA Goal
  • By coordinating our efforts, we can:
    • Reduce the costs and time of management activities
    • Manage across boundaries
    • Pool available resources
    • Increase the chances of success
    • Better detect/prevent new introductions
    • Better raise public awareness about invasive plants
    • Prioritize issues
weeds can t read
Weeds Can’t Read!

Jil Swearingen, NPS

synergy getting more out of your work through coordination13
Synergy – Getting more out of your work through coordination

Landowner A

Landowner B

synergy getting more out of your work through coordination14

$$$

Synergy – Getting more out of your work through coordination

Landowner A

Landowner B

need for cooperation
Need for Cooperation

“There is a bountiful seed source of many of the exotic/invasive species on the lands surrounding the Refuge, thus in order to be effective in our management plans, we must bring together a complex set of interests including private landowner, commercial, and public agencies.”

- Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge Comprehensive Conservation Plan, page 24

invasive species
Invasive Species
  • Not native to Southern Illinois
  • Introduced
  • Ability to reproduce in the wild
  • Potential to spread and cause economic or ecological damage
    • Loss of species diversity
    • Loss of ecosystem functions
    • Loss of productivity
    • Loss of wildlife habitat
loss of productivity
Loss of productivity
  • Bush honeysuckle invasion leads to a decline in the growth rate of trees by over 50%

- Hartman and McCarthy 2007

Troy Evans, EKU

invasive species18
Invasive Species
  • New habitat is free of natural predators, parasites, and diseases
    • Often gives exotic plants a competitive edge over native species
  • Can readily invade disturbed areas due to:
    • High seed production
    • Quick maturation time
    • Efficient methods of seed dispersal
    • Allelopathic effects of some invasives?
allelopathy
Allelopathy

Some plants give off chemicals through their roots that kill/inhibit other plants

allelopathy20
Allelopathy
  • Garlic Mustard release chemicals from its roots that kills the native micorrhizal community
    • Native plants depend upon micorrhizae to help absorb nutrients from the soil
    • Even after garlic mustard control, recolonization of the site by micorrhizae may be slow
    • Restoration efforts hampered
invasive species damage
Invasive Species Damage
  • Invade and occupy space before native species can colonize
  • Grow over, crowd, or girdle native species
  • Cast heavy shade and form dense monocultures, limiting the ability of native plants to grow
  • Close-in open areas
  • Limit animal and human movement through an area
  • Limit recreational activities
  • Overwhelm seedbanks
    • Once the invasive is cleared, only new invasives come back
invade and occupy space before native species can colonize
Invade and occupy space before native species can colonize

Autumn olive and sericea lespedeza invading old roadbed

grow over crowd or girdle native species
Grow over, crowd, or girdle native species

Kudzu overwhelming a hardwood forest

cast heavy shade and form dense monocultures
Cast heavy shade and form dense monocultures

Japanese stiltgrass forming a solid mat of vegetation

close in open areas
Close-in open areas

Bush honeysuckle invading an opening in a savanna restoration

limit animal and human movement through an area
Limit animal and human movement through an area

Multiflora rose thorns – a serious deterrent to anything trying to travel through an infested area

limit recreational activities
Limit Recreational Activities

Curly leaf pondweed infestation, reducing the ability of anglers to fish

overwhelm seedbanks
Overwhelm seedbanks

Rosettes of garlic mustard, showing domination of seedbank

invasive plants of southern illinois
Autumn olive

Bush honeysuckle

Chinese yam

Common reed (Phragmites)

Crown vetch

Curly leaf pondweed

Eurasian watermilfoil

Garlic mustard

Japanese honeysuckle

Japanese hops

Japanese knotweed

Japanese stiltgrass

Johnsongrass

Kudzu

Multiflora rose

Musk thistle

Oriental bittersweet

Princess tree

Purple loosestrife

Reed canarygrass

Sawtooth oak

Sericea lespedeza

Tree-of-heaven

Invasive Plants of Southern Illinois
other species we do not know about31
Other species we do not know about?
  • Need for an Early Detection and Rapid Response (EDRR) System
    • Any new or suspected invasive species is reported
    • Identification/threat is verified
    • If so, necessary steps are taken to eradicate or contain infestation
need for control and management
Need for Control and Management

“Exotic and invasive plant species pose one of the greatest threats to the maintenance and restoration of the diverse habitats found on the Refuge.”

- Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge Comprehensive Conservation Plan, page 24

“Eradicate, control, and prevent the introduction of invasive exotic species”

- One of six primary challenges set forth at the beginning of the Illinois Department of Natural Resources State Wildlife Action Plan

need for control and management34
Need for Control and Management

“Non-native invasive species must be controlled or eradicated.”

- Shawnee National Forest, Land and Resource Management Plan

“We control invasive species because they are harming the native plants and animals we care so much about protecting.”

- The Nature Conservancy Global Invasive Species Initiative website: http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/

what are you doing about it cwma projects
What are you doing about it? – CWMA Projects

Strategic Planning

  • Develop a CWMA strategic plan
    • Informs agency’s management decisions
    • Prioritize species
    • Direct management activities
    • Defines goals and objectives for CWMA
what are you doing about it cwma projects36
What are you doing about it? – CWMA Projects

Educational campaign

  • Contact and inform anyone that has the potential to cause or prevent the spread of invasive species
    • Hunter and angler community
    • Other outdoor recreationists
    • Fish/water garden stores
    • Plant nurseries
    • Loggers
    • Etc.
prevention
Prevention

“First line of defense and the most cost effective strategy against invasive species”

- National Invasive Species Management Plan

  • Reduced use
  • Sanitation
  • Inspection
  • Proper disposal
prevention38
Prevention

Kris Johnson, NPS

Fill dirt pile infested with musk thistle

what are you doing about it cwma projects39
What are you doing about it? – CWMA Projects

Control and ID trainings

  • For agency personnel, land owners, and the general public
    • Identification
    • Need for control
    • Management issues
    • Control recommendations
what are you doing about it cwma projects40
What are you doing about it? – CWMA Projects
  • Invasive species distribution data collection and mapping
    • SIU database
    • 8,000 records for Southern Illinois
  • Continued collection of data
    • Training volunteers
    • Surveys
  • Online mapping system (eventually)
what are you doing about it cwma projects41
What are you doing about it? – CWMA Projects
  • Management on public lands and natural areas
    • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Forest Service, Illinois DNR, The Nature Conservancy
  • Management and prevention in roadside maintenance and construction areas
    • ILDOT
  • Survey, Inspection, and Detection
    • USDA-APHIS and Department of Agriculture
  • Research on invasive species biology and management
    • SIU
  • Technical assistance
    • University of Illinois Extension and NRCS
  • Cost share programs
    • NRCS and Illinois DNR
  • Educational programs/Early Detection program
    • Everyone
get involved
Get Involved
  • Learn to identify the invasive species in your area
  • Report any infestations of new invasive species (RiverToRiver@gmail.com)
  • Start a control program on your land
  • Do not plant or spread invasive species
  • Talk to local groups/communities about invasive species
  • Talk to your local and state government about invasive species
get involved43
Get Involved
  • Sign up for newsletter / email list
  • Talk to me
    • RiverToRiver@gmail.com
    • 618-998-5920
  • On the web: www.????????????
  • Contact any of the CWMA members for more specifics on their programs (contact information available at CWMA website)