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All about the Indus River Valley. General Information River Civilizations. The 1 st civilizations arose near rivers . The people of the Indus Valley farmed along the Indus River . Subcontinent – a large landmass that is set apart from the rest of the continent by a physical feature

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All about the Indus River Valley


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general information river civilizations
General InformationRiver Civilizations
  • The 1st civilizations arose near rivers.
  • The people of the Indus Valley farmed along the Indus River.
  • Subcontinent – a large landmass that is set apart from the rest of the continent by a physical feature
  • Indian Subcontinent – separated from Asia by the Hindu Kush and the Himalayas ~ includes: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, and Bhutan
questions 1 and 2
Questions 1 and 2
  • What physical feature was central to early civilizations?
  • Which river formed the basis of India’s first civilization?
question 3
Question 3
  • What countries make up the Indian Subcontinent?
              • Identify at least 4
physical features
Physical Features
  • Features on the landscape that were formed by natural processes. Ex. mountains, rivers, lakes
himalayas
Himalayas
  • The planet's tallest mountain range, including the highest, Mount Everest. Provides a natural border for India.
indus and ganges rivers
Indus and Ganges Rivers
  • Two of the most important geographic features in India, providing water sources and creating fertile land.
question 4
Question 4
  • What natural barriers separate the Indian subcontinent from the rest of Asia?
question 5
Question 5
  • The continental United States is about 2,400 miles wide. How does this length compare to the Indian subcontinent?
river systems indus river part 1 envelope
River Systems ~ Indus River part 1 envelope
  • Flows across the Northwestern part of the subcontinent
  • Snow and ice from the mountains melt and drain into the rivers, when the rivers flood it leaves behind silt
  • River water allowed for irrigation
india s 1 st civilization part 2 envelope
India’s 1st Civilization part 2 envelope
  • Civilization grew around the Indus Valley
  • Developed in an area that is DRY most of the year
river systems ganges river part 3 envelope
River Systems ~ Ganges River part 3 envelope
  • Flows across the Northern part of the subcontinent
  • Floods create a HUGE, fertile plain good for farming – this is the Ganges Plain
  • The rich Ganges Plain was the CENTER of another civilization
question 6
Question 6
  • Why were river floods a welcome event for early Indus Valley people?
question 7
Question 7
  • What fertile plain is located in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent?
climate part 4 envelope
Climate part 4 envelope
  • Monsoons-seasonal wind patterns that cause wet and dry seasons
  • Much of India has a Tropical climate
  • Winter- dry blow from the land
  • Summer-wet blow from the ocean
question 8
Question 8
  • What impact do monsoons have on agriculture in India?
beginning of indus river valley below envelope
Beginning of Indus River Valley below envelope
  • The Indus River Valley Civilization started about 2500 B.C.E.
  • Along the south-western part of the Indus River.
  • The largest city was Mohenjo-Daro, in present day Pakistan.
  • Settlements stretched all along the river.
impact of geography 3 tab
Impact of Geography 3 tab

NATURAL BORDERS

  • Borders made of land or water
      • Mountains- Himalayas, Hindu Kush
      • Water- Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, and Indian Ocean
      • Prevented invasion and disease

FARMING / IRRIGATION

  • Used the rivers and rain from the monsoons to wter crops

TRAVEL

  • Location to rivers allowed for easy travel and trade
timeline
Timeline
  • 7000 B.C began growing crops around Indus River System
                • With a steady food supply population grew
  • 3000 B.C cities began to develop on the Indus Valley plain
  • 2500 B.C cities were the center of civilization
  • 1700 B.C civilization disappeared
  • 1921 ruins were discovered for Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro
question 9
Question 9
  • When did cities begin to develop in the Indus Valley?
question 10
Question 10
  • When did the Indus Valley civilization flourish?
technology 3 tab
Technology 3 tab
  • Cities were well planned
      • Wide straight streets built in a grid a pattern
      • Built thick walls around the city
      • Built huge raised mound of earth and brick-remained above water during floods
  • Houses
    • had bathrooms and toilets
    • Trash chutes in many houses led to a bin in the streets
    • Waste water flowed into brick-lined sewage channels-1st sewage system
  • Math
    • Advanced system of weights and measurement based on units of 10
question 11
Question 11
  • Why do archaeologist say that Indus Valley cities were well planned?
farming 2 tab
Farming 2 tab
  • Irrigation channels
      • the monsoons were not predictable
      • Irrigation channels and ditches brought water to the wheat and barley fields
  • Crops and animals
      • 1st farmers to grow cotton for cloth
      • Raised cattle, sheep, goats, and chickens
      • Surplus crops were stored in a GRANARY~ a special building to hold grain
trade the economy depended greatly on trade 3 tab
Trade ~The economy depended greatly on trade3 tab
  • Items made and sold
      • Made jewelry from precious stones
      • Cotton cloth was woven and sold
      • Teak wood
  • Trade
      • Mesopotamia
      • Egypt
  • Advancement in technology led to carts and early boats that were used as the main method of trade and travel.
  • Seals and Weights
  • Traders used seals to identify their goods.
  • Seals were stamped on clay squares attached to their goods.
  • Accurate weights and measures increased trade.
question 12
Question 12
  • What items were exported for trade?
question 13
Question 13
  • What advancements aided trade?
mohenjo daro 3 tab
Mohenjo-Daro 3 tab
  • Design
      • Laid out in 12 blocks
      • Blocks measured 1260 feet north to south
      • 750 feet east to west
  • A central block on the west was raised 20 to 40 feet above the other blocks
      • The raised block is believed to be the center for religion
      • Large buildings with verandas
      • Supersized granary
      • Two assembly halls
  • Houses had bathrooms and sanitation facilities
government 3 tab
Government 3 tab
  • These items suggest that there was a STRONG central government:
      • Cities were well organized and show a high level of planning
      • Used a common system of weight and measurements
  • No royal statues or tombs makes is unlikely that a king ruled.
  • THERE IS NOT ENOUGH EVIDENCE TO DETERMINE THE TYPE OF GOVERNMENT THAT DID EXIST.
religion 3 tab
Religion 3 tab
  • Little is known
  • No temples and no clear signs of priests
  • The statues that have been found resemble the Gods in the Hinduism
  • Many Indus Valley carvings look like people meditating – an important practice in Hinduism
writing
Writing

We are still not sure how to

read the Seals that have

been found.

social structure caste system
Social Structure- Caste System
  • Caste system with four main classes
  • Verna- a caste grouping
  • People were born into social classes that could not be changed.Brahmins (priests and the king) Kshatriyas (warriors and aristocrats - rulers) Vaishyas (cultivators, artisans, and merchants) Shudras (peasants and serfs)
twice born
Twice Born
  • Men in the TOP 3 varnas were “twice born”
  • 1st physical birth
  • 2nd spiritual birth – this happened after the individual read the Vedas and mastered writing using Sanskirt
dalits
Dalits
  • a caste grouping that was added later for people they others Castes are untouchables
  • These pole completed the ‘dirty’ jobs: cleaning the toilets, butchering animals, etc
buildings and structures
Buildings and Structures
  • All houses had access to water and were about the same size
  • Houses had one or two stories
  • Most buildings were made of dry bricks
  • No large monuments or structures
  • Individual buildings for bathing and using the restroom (had an early "sanitation" system)
  • Citadels were used for defense
religion
Religion
  •  Hinduism 1700-1100 B.C.E.
  •  Buddhism 365 B.C.E.
gender roles
Gender Roles
  • Men worked within their designated caste social class
  • Women were valued because of their ability to produce offspring and nurse
  • When children were old enough, they adopted their parents' role