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AIAA Space 2005 NetCentric Science & Space Exploration – The International Polar Year as Development Testbed. Tim Howard Raytheon Information Solutions AIAA NetCentric Operations Program Committee (NCOPC) With thanks to: Brian Lail, Raytheon Missile Systems

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AIAA Space 2005NetCentric Science & Space Exploration – The International Polar Yearas Development Testbed

Tim Howard

Raytheon Information Solutions

AIAA NetCentric Operations Program Committee (NCOPC)

With thanks to:

Brian Lail, Raytheon Missile Systems

Tim Hughes, Raytheon NetCentric Systems

Dr. Phil Ardanuy, Raytheon Information Systems

Nick Powell, Raytheon Polar Services

overview
Overview
  • The Vision for Space Exploration & Science
  • What does NetCentric Operations mean?
  • The International Polar Year – 2007-2008
  • IPY as a Testbed for NetCentric Space Exploration
the vision for space exploration
The Vision for Space Exploration
  • The fundamental goal of this vision is to advance U.S. scientific, security, and economic interests through a robust space exploration program. In support of this goal, the United States will:
    • Implement a sustained and affordable human and robotic program to explore the solar system and beyond;
    • Extend human presence across the solar system, starting with a human return to the Moon before the year 2020, in preparation for human exploration of Mars and other destinations;
    • Develop the innovative technologies, knowledge, and infrastructures both to explore and to support decisions about the destinations for human exploration; and
    • Promote international and commercial participation in exploration to further U.S. scientific, security, and economic interests.
science enables the vision
Science Enables the Vision
  • Science provides the answer to the questions
    • What do we do when we get there?
    • What do we do along the way?
  • Field science allows an “intimate interaction between observer and their environment” (Jim Garvin, Feb 2005)
  • Current space science infrastructure is Earth-centric
    • Data returned to Earth for processing and analysis
    • Network infrastructure uses star topology
  • Future science in space needs an infrastructure in space
    • “Develop the innovative technologies, knowledge, and infrastructures both to explore and to support decisions about the destinations for human exploration”
    • Space network infrastructure needs to be mesh, or “grid”
      • No time to relay information back to Earth if it needs to go to a nearby sensor or platform
science enables the vision5
Science Enables the Vision
  • First step is to determine which information is needed where
    • Understanding what information is needed in space vs what needs to return to Earth becomes critical for human activities – ability to control from Earth rapidly drops as we move outward
    • The information is more important than the vehicle
      • Huygens probe built to be sacrificed
      • Deep Impact probe built to be sacrificed; flyby vehicle being prepared for next mission while in still space
        • Can we send up another probe to dock with it? (Replenishment)
  • Once we understand which information needs to go where, we design an infrastructure that is information-centric, or net-centric
  • Netcentric Operations (NCO) principles can help with that approach
  • Terminology check
    • NetCentric also called Network Centric
    • NetCentric Operations also referred to as NetCentric Warfare
    • For today the terms are ‘interoperable’
what does netcentric operations mean
What does NetCentric Operations Mean?
  • What is net-centricity?
  • It is the realization of a networked environment (infrastructure, systems, processes, people) that enables a completely different approach to the Department’s mission (i.e., warfighting) and the way it conducts its business operations
  • Substitute science for operations – NetCentric Science

Net-Centric Operations and Warfare Reference Model

Terry Hagle, Office of the DoD CIO/A&I

703-607-0235; [email protected]

July 2003

basic netcentric concepts
Basic NetCentric Concepts
  • Information sharing
  • Collaboration
  • Improved awareness
  • Self synchronization
  • Increased mission effectiveness
  • Add in “command intent” to enable an edge organization

Power to the Edge: Command... Control... in the Information Age.

David S. Alberts Richard E. Hayes

basic netcentric concepts8
Robustly networked force with high level of interoperability among mission participants and the systems that support them

The degree to which forces are interoperable directly affects their ability to conduct network-centric operations

Requirements

All force entities, as well as other entities the force needs to work with, need to be connected to the net

Entities need to be able to provide information to those on the net

Entities need to be able to find, retrieve, and understand the information available on the net

Entities may need to participate in one or more virtual collaboration environments or processes

Add one more requirement

Information needs to be on the net in the first place

Lack of connectivity or interoperability makes it difficult for entities to contribute to the mission

Their value (ability to contribute to mission effectiveness) will be limited over time

Basic NetCentric Concepts
the edge organization
The Edge Organization
  • Power to the Edge is about a new kind of organization – an edge organization
  • Characterized by the widespread sharing of information
  • Predominance of peer-to-peer relationships.
  • Edge organizations have a fundamentally different power topology from traditional organizations.
  • Virtually everyone is at the edge because they are empowered.
  • Distinctions between line and support organizations disappear, as do resulting stovepipes.

Power to the Edge: Command... Control... in the Information Age.

David S. Alberts Richard E. Hayes

the edge organization10
The Edge Organization
  • Need for the communications and translation functions performed by the middle is greatly diminished and as that need diminishes so will the size of the middle. (So much for us middle managers…)
  • With the disappearance of stovepipes and the demise of the middle, barriers to information sharing and collaboration disappear as well.
  • Edge organizations are, in fact, collaborative organizations that are inclusive, as opposed to hierarchies that are authoritarian and exclusive.
  • In socio-economic terms, hierarchies are socialist and edge organizations are marketplaces.
  • Edge organizations are organizations where everyone is empowered by information and has the freedom to do what makes sense.

Power to the Edge: Command... Control... in the Information Age.

David S. Alberts Richard E. Hayes

the global information grid gig
The Global Information Grid (GIG)
  • To create the network for Power to the Edge (NCO), DOD is implementing the Global Information Grid
  • Infrastructure based on meshed network concepts
  • Power pushed to the edge of the organization

Government Accountability Office

The Global Information Grid and Challenges Facing Its Implementation

July 2004

power to the edge applied nco
Comms Assets

(National/Tactical)

ISR Assets

(Nat’l/Tact)

Weapons

Systems

Net Ready Information

w/ Metadata

Power to the Edge – Applied NCO

Post

The “Net”

GIG Transport Layer

Use

Back up from

Effect Desired

  • Enterprise Services
  • Intel Processing
  • GIG Resource Mgmt.

Task

Mobile

Targets

Process

Right Information to the Right Place,

at the Right Time, in the Right Form

http://www.dodccrp.org/publications/publications.htm

exploration net concept
Task

Process

Post

Use

Exploration Net Concept
  • Enterprise Services
  • Informationl Processing
  • GIG Resource Mgmt.

C2

CEV

The “Net”

Platforms

Comms

SIG Transport Layer

Net Ready Data

w/ Metadata

Extensibility in Space & Time

Sensors

Effectors

need a test bed
Need a Test Bed
  • “Develop the innovative technologies, knowledge, and infrastructures both to explore and to support decisions about the destinations for human exploration”
  • Need a program to establish an infrastructure that can support similar kinds of science as space science
    • Inhospitable conditions
    • Difficult to reach locations
    • Need remote capabilities to conduct science

GAO Study on GIG Implementation

the international polar year 2007 2008
The International Polar Year – 2007-2008
  • Bottom-up development from scientists around the world
  • Brought to attention of International Council for Science & World Meteorological Society – rapid development and approval
  • Builds on legacy of previous International Polar Years (IPY)
    • 1882 – 1883
    • 1932 – 1933
    • IGY 1957 – 1958 (Sputnik/South Pole)
  • Fundamental concept is of an intensive burst of internationally coordinated, interdisciplinary, scientific research and observations focused on the Earth’s polar regions.
  • Official observing period IPY will be from 1 March 2007 until 1 March 2009
  • Main geographic focus will be the Earth’s high latitudes, but studies in any region relevant to the understanding of polar processes or phenomena will be encouraged.

A Framework for the International Polar Year 2007-2008

ICSU IPY 2007-2008 Planning Group

the ipy vision
The IPY Vision
  • The IPY aims to exploit the intellectual resources and science assets of nations worldwide to make major advances in polar knowledge and understanding, while leaving a legacy of new or enhanced observational systems, facilities and infrastructure.
  • Arguably the most important legacies will be a new generation of polar scientists and engineers, as well as an exceptional level of interest and participation from polar residents, schoolchildren, the general public, and decision-makers, worldwide.
the ipy research themes
The IPY Research Themes
  • 1. Status: to determine the present environmental status of the polar regions;
  • 2. Change: to quantify, and understand, past and present natural environmental and social change in the polar regions; and to improve projections of future change;
  • 3. Global Linkages: to advance understanding on all scales of the links and interactions between polar regions and the rest of the globe, and of the processes controlling these;
  • 4. New Frontiers: to investigate the frontiers of science in the polar regions;
  • 5. Vantage Point: to use the unique vantage point of the polar regions to develop and enhance observatories from the interior of the Earth to the Sun and the cosmos beyond;
  • 6. Human Dimension: to investigate the cultural, historical, and social processes that shape the sustainability of circumpolar human societies, and to identify their unique contributions to global cultural diversity and citizenship.
the ipy research themes18
The IPY Research Themes
  • In pursuing these themes, IPY 2007-2008 will seek to exploit new technological and logistical capabilities, and to make major advances in knowledge and understanding. It aims to leave a legacy of new or enhanced observational systems, facilities and infrastructure, numerical Earth simulators, and research networks, as well as an unprecedented degree of access to the data and information it will generate.
the ipy interdisciplinary strategies
The IPY Interdisciplinary Strategies
  • 1. to establish a baseline for identifying future change, a synoptic set of multidisciplinary observations is proposed to establish the status of the polar environments in 2007-2008;
  • 2. to quantify and understand past present and future change at the poles, plans have been proposed to acquire key data sets necessary to understand factors controlling change in the polar environment;
  • 3. to enable future generations to better identify the global linkages between the poles and the rest of the planet will necessitate the establishment of a legacy of multidisciplinary observational networks;
  • 4. to investigate the frontiers of science which will trigger the launching of coordinated, multidisciplinary and multinational investigations;
  • 5. leveraging the unique vantage point of the polar regions will result in the implementation of polar observatories to study important facets of Planet Earth and beyond;
  • 6. to investigate crucial facets of the human dimension of the polar regions which will lead to the creation of datasets on the changing conditions of circumpolar human societies.
the ipy additional requirements
The IPY - Additional Requirements
  • Education, outreach and communication with the media must be an integral component of each major IPY 2007-2008 activity and will be a required part of Polar Year projects. Some activities have global reach, such as synoptic measurements of the global environment, and others are nationally focused, such as educational activities woven into primary school curricula.
the ipy command intent
The IPY – Command Intent
  • Sound organizational structure that promotes efficient communication, attracts excellent people, and makes effective use of existing polar organizations.
    • Core participants will be self-organizing groups of researchers, their parent organizations, existing bodies with a role in polar regions research and monitoring, and consortia of such bodies.
    • Each IPY 2007-2008 project will have a Project Steering Committee (PSC) responsible for detailed planning, execution and reporting of science, data and education activities.
    • National Committees will coordinate participation and support at the national level.
    • Existing international bodies, both governmental and non-governmental, established for coordination or support of international initiatives in the polar regions, are also significant for IPY 2007-2008.
  • An IPY Joint Committee (JC), established by ICSU and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), will be responsible for overall scientific planning, coordination, guidance and oversight of the International Polar Year 2007-2008, supported by an International Programme Office (IPO).
  • A Consultative Forum (CF) will provide the means for dialogue amongst the wide range of IPY 2007-2008 stakeholders, and a vehicle for guiding the JC on IPY 2007-2008 development.
power to the polar edge
Comms Assets

(SATCOM, HF, Iridium

Internet, I-2)

Remote Sensing Assets (ISR=)

Terascan, GIS

Field Parties

Systems

Pole observatories

Net Ready KPP

w/ Metadata

Power to the Polar Edge

The “Net”

Post

USAP Transport Layer

Products

- Maps

- Reports

Use

  • Enterprise Services
  • Resource mgt
  • Data processing
  • Bulk Data transfer
  • Date storage
  • Information Products

Penguin Colony

Support

(McMurdo, Pole, Palmer)

Science Objectives

Process

Flexible, Mobile Science in the Information Domain

ipy as a testbed for netcentric space exploration
IPY as a Testbed for NetCentric Space Exploration
  • Netcentricity comes from the concept of informed individual components, with a clear understanding of a higher purpose and mission, coming together to collaborate and share information and awareness to effect a solution for a given problem. While the militart focus is necessarily about weapons effectiveness, science can adapt the concepts to improve the effectiveness of its sensors and platforms, its exchange of data and information, and its coordination of science activities across a large physical domain, indeed, the entire planet, or even the solar system.
conclusion
Conclusion
  • The Vision for Space Exploration & Science
    • Science is the driver
    • We need an information-centric or net-centric approach
  • What does NetCentric Operations mean
    • Move power to the Edge of the organization
  • The International Polar Year – 2007-2008
    • International effort focused on the Polar Regions
  • IPY Requirements for NetCentric Science
    • Leave behind a better information-centric research and observation infrastructure
  • IPY as a Testbed for NetCentric Space Exploration
    • The pieces are in place; let’s get to work!
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