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Earth and Space Science

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  1. Earth and Space Science english.peopledaily.com.cn

  2. Earth and Space • Reminder: Syllabus signed and turned into tray.

  3. Branches of Earth/Space Science What are the 4 branches of Earth/Space Science? life123.com

  4. Branches of Earth/Space Science Draw an illustration for each branch of Earth/Space.

  5. Branches of Earth/Space Science What are the 4 branches of Earth/Space Science? Geology: The study of the origin, processes, and structure of solid Earth. Astronomy: The study of the universe beyond Earth. Oceanography: The study of Earth’s oceans. (Covers ¾ of Earth’s surface). Meteorology: The study of Earth’s atmosphere. life123.com

  6. Geology Oceanography 4 Meteorology Astronomy pdfcast.org

  7. Astronomy Scientific study of the universe. sciencephoto.com

  8. Astronomy What have astronomers discovered? sciencephoto.com

  9. Universe • Rank/connect the following components of the universe from largest (1.) to smallest (3.) using a flow chart. -Asteroids(3.) -Planets (3.) -Stars (2.) -Galaxies (1.) -Comets (3.) -Black Holes (2.)

  10. Cosmology • Study of the origin, structure and • evolution of the universe. sciencephoto.com

  11. Cosmology Debate What is Earth’s place in the Universe? • Aristotle, Greek philosopher, proposed the Geocentric Model. • Copernicus was an early astronomer who hypothesized the Heliocentric Model. (382-322 BC) 1473-1543

  12. Cosmology Debate What is Earth’s place in the Universe? • Aristotle, Greek philosopher, believed all things in the universe revolved around the Earth. Geocentric Model • Copernicus was an early astronomer who proposed the solar system model: planets revolve around the sun. Heliocentric Model (382-322 BC) 1473-1543

  13. Cosmology Debate • Illustrate the difference between the Geocentric and Heliocentric Model .

  14. Heliocentric Model • In 1609 Galileo used the first telescope to provide evidence of the Heliocentric Model. • In 1610 he published the Starry Messenger which revealed his findings. He published more evidence later. • Galileo and his publications were banned from the church. Galileo Galilei

  15. A Starry Night Why can we see stars in the sky at night? sciencephoto.com

  16. A Starry Night Why can we see stars in the sky at night? • Stars produce and emit light that we can see or can be gathered by a telescope. • Other objects within our solar system reflect light from our sun to Earth. sciencephoto.com

  17. Electromagnetic Radiation • All light particles emitted or reflected by objects in space. mynasadata.larc.nasa.gov The spectrum divides light particles into 7 regions based on their wave-like properties.

  18. Electromagnetic Spectrum mynasadata.larc.nasa.gov

  19. Wave-Like Properties • Wave-length: Length of a wave. (meters) • Frequency: How many waves (cycles) can past a certain point in a given amount of time. (waves per second= Hertz)

  20. Wave-Like Properties • Wave-length: Length of a wave. • Frequency: How many waves can past a certain point in a given amount of time. • Temperature of light particles is a measurement of energy they contain and can emit to their surroundings.

  21. Electromagnetic Spectrum Analysis mynasadata.larc.nasa.gov

  22. Electromagnetic Spectrum Analysis What produces and emits these light particles toward Earth? What reflects these light particles to Earth? What are the only type of light particles that can pass through Earth’s atmosphere? Which light particle region has the smallest wavelength? Which light particle region has the smallest frequency? Which light particle region emits the smallest amount of energy? As wavelength increases for a light particle, what happens to its frequency? energy? In the visible region, (ROYGBIV), does red or blue light particles have a slightly larger wavelength? mynasadata.larc.nasa.gov

  23. Electromagnetic Spectrum Analysis loke.as.arizona.edu

  24. Telescopes What is a telescope? universetoday.com

  25. Telescopes What is a telescope? An instrument that collects and focuses electromagnetic radiation from the sky for better observation. universetoday.com

  26. Types of Telescopes Reflecting Telescope Refracting Telescope universetoday.com http://images.yourdictionary.com

  27. Types of Telescopes Reflecting Telescope Refracting Telescope universetoday.com http://images.yourdictionary.com Developed by Hans Lippershey. Uses only lenses to collect/focus light. Lens’ size is limited due to support only around the lens. Restricts amount of light collected and therefore objects observed. Developed by Issac Newton. Uses mirrors to gather/focus light toward eyepiece. Mirrors can be bigger due to Additional support from back. Able to collect more light and observe more objects.

  28. Telescopes • What can limit the amount of light that telescopes can collect from earth?

  29. Telescopes • What can limit the amount of light that telescopes can collect from earth? • Light pollution: Artificial light from cities can block natural light from stars and planets. That is why stars are brighter in the country then in the city. • Earth’s atmosphere: It blocks a majority of the invisible light from reaching ground telescopes.

  30. Space Telescopes Hubble Telescope James Webb Telescope britannica.com bis.gov.uk

  31. Spacecraft • Many spacecraft have left Earth’s orbit to explore the outer planets and their moons. Use the internet to learn more about these spacecrafts below.

  32. Universe: Measuring Distance • Light Year: The distance light travels in one year. -Light particles travel at the same speed: 300,000 km/s *How far (km) does light travel in one year? • Astronomical Units: Distance between the Earth and the sun. 500,000,000 km = 1 astronomical unit (AU) How long does it take light from the sun to reach earth?

  33. Galaxies • Galaxies are composed of stars, gas and dust held together by gravity. • Galaxies are the building blocks of the universe • There are approximately 100 billion galaxies in the universe. • Each galaxy contains 10 million to trillions of stars. • In between the stars are gas & dust particles.

  34. Mr. Hubble • Edwin Hubble is a famous astronomer who observed • galaxies outside the Milky Way. • Classified galaxies into 3 groups based on their shapes. Spiral Barred Spiral Elliptical Irregular Spiral

  35. Elliptical Galaxies • These are round or oval in shape • Look like the spiral galaxies without the arms. • Contain mostly older stars • Have very little gas or dust between the stars. Centarus A Meisser87 in the Virgo constellation

  36. Spiral Galaxies • Spiral Galaxies: has a nucleus or center of bright stars & flattened arms that spiral out around the center – entire galaxy is rotating around the center

  37. Irregular Galaxies • Has no particular shape • Tend to be smaller & fainter in color • Younger stars Cigar galaxy of Ursa Major

  38. The Milky Way • What shape is our Milky Way? barred spiral • 2. What holds the stars, gases, and dust together in • our Milky Way? gravity

  39. What is the Future of our Galaxy? Milky Way Andromeda They could collide with one another in about 4 billion yrs.

  40. Galaxy Movement • Edwin Hubble provided evidence of galaxy movement. • If the wavelength of light collected from a telescope gets smaller then a galaxy is moving toward the Milky Way. (BLUE Shift) • If the wavelength of light collected from a telescope gets larger then the galaxy is moving away from the Milky Way. (RED Shift)

  41. Doppler Effect

  42. Universe: Bell Ringer • Identify the four branches of Earth and Space. • T or F: The sun reflects off the moon? • Draw the difference in wavelength between an ultraviolet and infrared light particle. • Identify and illustrate the three types of galaxies that make-up our universe. • Who discovered that galaxies are moving? • What are the two ways in which we measure distance?

  43. Reflection: Doppler Effect Lab • How was the rubber band model useful in explaining the doppler effect? • What was a limitation to using the rubber band model to illustrate the doppler effect? • Explain the movement of the following stars: • If you look through a telescope and observe overtime the star’s wavelength becoming shorter. • You look at another star in the sky and overtime observe that the star’s wavelength increases.

  44. Doppler Effect

  45. Movement in the Universe • Edwin Hubble’s results on galaxy movement using the doppler effect provided evidence that the universe was expanding. Inflationary ? (Deflationary) Steady-State?

  46. Movement in the Universe InflationarySteady-State Edwin Hubble’s results on galaxy movement using the doppler effect provided evidence that the universe was expanding.

  47. Hubble Telescope: Ultra Deep Field

  48. Expansion of Universe Lab

  49. Movement in the Universe Edwin Hubble used the Doppler Effect of light particles to prove that the universe was expanding. He was also able to calculate the speed of different galaxies by observing the amount of light emitted by them. (Hubble’s Law) His research provided evidence of the possible origin of the universe.

  50. Big Bang Theory • Proposed by a Belgian cosmologist and priest in 1933. • The Universe was once compressed into a tiny object: “Cosmic Egg”. • Cosmic Egg exploded propelling matter into space and explaining why the universe is currently expanding. • Hubble’s research justified Lemaitre’s hypothesis. Georges Lemaître1894-1966