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STUDENT LAUNCH INITIATIVE 2011 – 2012 AIAA OC Rocketeers FRR Presentation April 9, 2012 PowerPoint Presentation
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STUDENT LAUNCH INITIATIVE 2011 – 2012 AIAA OC Rocketeers FRR Presentation April 9, 2012

STUDENT LAUNCH INITIATIVE 2011 – 2012 AIAA OC Rocketeers FRR Presentation April 9, 2012

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STUDENT LAUNCH INITIATIVE 2011 – 2012 AIAA OC Rocketeers FRR Presentation April 9, 2012

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  1. Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Rocketeers STUDENT LAUNCH INITIATIVE2011 – 2012AIAA OC RocketeersFRR PresentationApril 9, 2012

  2. Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Rocketeers Agenda • Introduction of team members (representing 4 high schools in Orange County California) • Full Scale Design • Vehicle – Design, Construction, Flight tests • UAV Payload – Description, Safety, and Testing • UAV Flight Tests • Wingless UAV • Recovery System and Events • GPS • Integration • Risks and Safety • Educational Outreach • Budget and Timeline

  3. Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Rocketeers Modifications Since Original Posting • Updated Slides • Full Scale Design • Payload slides • Recovery • Added slides • Full Scale Test Flight • UAV Test flight • Wingless UAV • Black Powder Charge tests • Lessons Learned

  4. Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Rocketeers FullScaleDesign

  5. Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Rocketeers Vehicle – Full Scale

  6. Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Rocketeers Vehicle – Full Scale cont’d

  7. Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Rocketeers Vehicle – Forward Section

  8. Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Rocketeers Vehicle – Avionics Bay

  9. Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Rocketeers Vehicle – Rear Section

  10. Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Rocketeers Aerotech K1050(Alternate: Cesaroni K1440)

  11. Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Rocketeers Launch Simulations • Simulations were run using Rocksim • Over 100 simulations were run to fine tune vehicle • Dimensions, weights, and launch conditions were varied • Once vehicle was designed varied engines to reach the altitude closest to 1 mile • Verified top speed was still subsonic • Verified range with varied winds

  12. Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Rocketeers Vehicle Construction • The vehicle is made of composite materials • Body tube is 5” diameter .075” thick filament wound carbon fiber • The nose cone is the same material • Sabot is thinner couple but of the same material • Bulkheads and centering rings are laminated 3/16” thick fiberglass with 1/8” thick honeycomb or 9 layer plywood between • Fins are 0.188” thick fiberglass • Proline 4500 high temperature epoxy is used on the motor tube • West systems epoxy is used everywhere else on the body • Attachment points are all “U” bolts

  13. Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Rocketeers Bulkheads and rings To keep down weight in this carbon fiber vehicle, all bulkheads and centering rings use composite construction with fiberglass sandwiching light-weight honeycomb material or, where more strength is required, 9 layer ½” thick plywood

  14. Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Rocketeers Body Tubes The carbon fiber body tubes cut relatively easily using a hacksaw Lengthwise cuts for the sabot and fin slots were made using a Dremel tool The carbon fiber was under a great deal of compression and wanted to close in on itself during the cutting

  15. Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Rocketeers Motor Mount The motor mount is made of 2 12” long 54mm fiberglass motor tubes They are joined together with the ½” thick composite fiberglass – plywood centering ring reinforced with fiberglass tape The other two rings are composite fiberglass and honeycomb

  16. Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Rocketeers Other Details The sabot end caps are ½” thick 9 ply plywood with fiberglass on the outer end Heavy “U” bolts and hinge are used The avionics by is stepped plywood to promote a good seal capped with fiberglass – the inside is sprayed with an RF shield

  17. Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Rocketeers Fin attachment Fins are carefully marked using the fin jig Fins are epoxied in place using high temperature and West Systems adhesive Alignment is held when epoxy cures in the fin jig The end is left open to reinforce the joints Finally, fiberglass tape is applied

  18. Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Rocketeers Full Scale 1st Test Flight Plaster City • Full Scale Model was flown at Plaster City • Used dual redundant dual deploy for a recovery system • vehicle was stable with an extremely straight flight • Sabot deployed wingless UAV properly • Main parachute did not deploy • due to a missing quick-link

  19. Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Rocketeers Full Scale 2nd Test Flight Plaster City • Full Scale Model was flown at Plaster City • Used dual redundant dual deploy for a recovery system • vehicle was stable once again with an extremely straight flight • The Tender descender cap broke • and the main parachute did not • deploy

  20. Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Rocketeers UAV Payload System • The UAV Payload has been simplified since the original proposal due to • Safety concerns (recovery in the event of partial system failure) • Space and weight limitations of the UAV • Time constraints • The UAV System consists of • 2.4 GHz RC Control via Spektrum DX-8 • 434.92 MHz GPS real time downlink • 1.2 GHz Video downlink • Video data converted to USB for interface similar to web cam • Note: Rocket also uses two separate GPS transmitters for tracking

  21. Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Rocketeers UAV Mechanical Components • Mechanically, the UAV is composed of two main parts • Bendable wing developed at University of Florida • Fuselage, vertical and horizontal stabilizer (modified to fit) from the Electrifly RC Airplane • Wing • Wingspan 30 inches • Weight 12 grams • Material Carbon Fiber • Fuselage • Length 30 inches • Weight 140g • Material fiberglass • Parachute release mechanism is electrically controlled servo activated by one channel of the AR-8000 RC receiver • Vehicle with electronics is 1.4 lb

  22. Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Rocketeers Bendable Wing Fabrication • Wing design was developed at University of Florida (UF) for use in UAVs deployed from a tube • Northrop Grumman used their CNC machine to make three molds mold (18”, 24”, and 30”) from our file and tooling board • Carbon fiber cloth is 6 oz 3K Twill Weave pre-preg • Cloth is laid at 45 degree angle to direction of motion of the wing through the air • Northrop Grumman formed our wing from our mold using their non-flight autoclave • Cloth is laid over the mold and placed in a vacuum bag (mold and vacuum bag are protected with release film • The pressure is then lowered as close to 30” of mecury as possible • The vacuum bag and contents are baked at 260 – 350 degrees for about 6 hours

  23. Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Rocketeers Bendable Wing Fabrication • After the wing is removed from the mold it must be trimmed to the correct size • Carbon Fiber is relatively easy to trim with a stout pair of scissors • The rough edges can then be sanded smooth with a bench sander

  24. Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Rocketeers Bendable Wing Characteristics • The carbon fiber wing is formed similar to a tape measure • It will bend in one direction easily – but not the other direction • The wing can wrap around the fuselage • The entire UAV with wrapped wings can then fit inside the sabot

  25. Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Rocketeers UAV Design • Originally an Electrifly Rifle RC Plane • Selected for its size and fiberglass body • Wingspan: 31 inches • Wing Area: 112 square inches • Weight: 18 oz • Wing loading: 22 – 23 oz/square ft • Length: 24.5 inches • Control Surfaces: Ailerons and Elevator • The final UAV • Wingspan: 28” • Wing Area: Approx 190 square inches • Weight : 22 oz • Wing loading: 16 – 17 oz/square ft • Length: 25.5 inches • Control Surfaces: Rudder and Elevator

  26. Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Rocketeers UAV Elevated Wing • Wing is elevated on a tower from the original Rifle design to • Give the wing room to maximize the use of the inside diameter of the sabot • Provide more space for added electronics and batteries • Put most of the weight under the wing to minimally affect the center of gravity

  27. Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Rocketeers UAV Video Tower • This tower provides space for all video equipment and power source in one module • Video Camera (640 x 480 CMOS NTSC) • Battery (11.1 V 550 mAh) • Video Transmitter (Lawmate 1Watt) • 1.2GHz low pass filter • 3dB gain antenna • Power remains off until turned on via a microswitch when UAV is deployed

  28. Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Rocketeers UAV Tail Modifications • Original tail was “T” with elevators on horizontal stabilizer and no rudder (wing had ailerons) • Now cruciform to use maximum width in sabot for maximum surface area • Added rudder to vertical stabilizer

  29. Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Rocketeers UAV Range Testing • Ground station was 1.2GHz receiver • Dronesvision 14 dB gain patch antenna • Happauge video to USB converter • Video was turned ON in UAV and team members walked away from ground station • Same test run with Spektrum transmitter and control surfaces

  30. Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Rocketeers Range Testing Results • Video end of range was non-usable picture • RC end of range was incosistent movement of controlled surfaces

  31. Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Rocketeers UAV Flight Test 1 • The team enlisted the help of Mark Slizie, manager of a local Hobby People store • Mark gave the team guidance on modification of the Rifle • We went to test fly with the Orange Coast Radio Control Club • Interference from the Electronic Speed Control into the radio made the control unstable and prevented us from flying

  32. Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Rocketeers UAV Flight Test 2 • We went to go fly with the Orange coast radio control club • The plane proved to be stable on the first hand launch the plane had power but it was not used • The plane was powered on the second hand launch but acted strangely • The first hand launch on landing may have damaged the plane, which caused it to act strangeley • The plane was damaged on the second hand launch

  33. Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Rocketeers UAV Flight Test 3 • we went to go fly with the Orange coast radio control club • The repair job was verified • We tested the plane to make sure everything was properly working • The motor shaft snapped • We Learned to ALWAYS ground test before flying

  34. Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Rocketeers Changes to the UAV • One of the experienced flyers at Great Park helped us adjust the trim in the servos controlling • We bought a new prop shaft and placed it in our motor because we could not find another motor that would fix our problem • Then we mounted the motor on the outside of the UAV so we could have a more secure attachment of the prop to the UAV • To add stability to the plane, we decided to increase surface area to the tail by adding four plywood pieces in the shape of a diamond to the outside of our cruciform tail

  35. Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Rocketeers UAV Test Flight 4 • Mark Silzle came out to throw our plane for us • Mark threw the plane 2 times to determine that it was stable enough to fly • When we found that it was, on the third throw we attempted a powered flight • In this short flight, controlled by one of our payload members and lasting less than a minute, the UAV was stable when flying straight and turned • The turn, however, was not easy to control as the UAV tended to want to roll • We determined that the UAV is flyable, but that turning is a weak point in its design because of the lack of ailerons on the bendable wing

  36. Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Rocketeers UAV Electronics • Main UAV control is via Radio Control (Spektrum DX-8 transmitter and AR-8000 receiver) on 2.4GHz • GPS tracking is done through a Big Red Bee Beeline GPS transmitting on 434.92 MHz • Video is from a CCD camera and relayed to the ground real time via a 1 watt Lawmate 1.2GHz transmitter

  37. Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Rocketeers UAV Electronics System

  38. Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Rocketeers UAV – Ground Station • UAV Ground Station • Allows RC control of UAV • Allows detachment of the parachute from the UAV • Displays real time video from the UAV

  39. Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Rocketeers UAV Safety • The UAV will descend on parachute until it can be verified it is flightworthy and not fouled on shock cords or shroud lines • The UAV detachment from the parachute is manual allowing a human to make the final decision • The UAV will be under RC control at all time • If RC communications is lost the AR-8000 will circle while losing altitude until back on the ground. • If the battery dips below a safe voltage for Lithium Polymer, the high current drain of the motor is disabled and only the radio and servos remain powered to allow the pilot to return the UAV safely to ground

  40. Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Rocketeers Wingless UAV • Contains Ardu Pilot Mega, and all peripherals along with a camera and Lawmate transmitter • It transmits full telemetry data and video to a ground station during decent • Contained in a 4inch diameter body tube that is 12 inches in length

  41. Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Rocketeers Recovery • Recovery System consists of: • G-Wiz Partners HCX Flight Computer (4 pyro events) • 1.10” x 5.50” 45 grams • Accelerometer based altitude • Raven Flight Computer (4 pyro events) • 1.80" x 0.8" x 0.55."  27 grams • accelerometer based altitude • Avionics Bay is coated with MG Chemicals SuperShield Conductive Coating 841 to minimize RF Interference • Deployment bag with 96” Main Parachute • Two Tender Descenders in series (primary and backup) • Other Parachutes: • 36” Drogue • 48” Parachute for top body section • 24” Parachute on UAV

  42. Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Rocketeers Recovery Interconnect • Flight computers are powered from Duracell 9VDC batteries • Raven CPU and Pyro are on separate batteries • HCX CPU and Pyro are on separate batteries • Design includes 4 safety switches (CPU power on before pyro) • Raven Flight Computer CPU Power • HCX Flight Computer CPU Power • Raven Flight Compuer Pyro Power • HCX Pyro Power

  43. Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Rocketeers Black Powder Charges • A total of six separate black powder charges are used • The Drogue uses one black powder charge from the HCX pyro 2 as primary and one from the Raven pyro 1 as the backup to deploy at apogee • The Sabot uses one black powder charge from the HCX pyro 3 as primary and one from the Raven pyro 2 as the backup to deploy at an altitude of 1,000 ft • The Main uses one black powder charge from the HCX pyro 4 as primary and one from the Raven pyro 3 as the backup to deploy at an altitude of 800 ft

  44. Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Rocketeers Black Powder Charge Results

  45. Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Rocketeers Black Powder Charge Results

  46. Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Rocketeers Recovery Events • Redundant Dual Deployment from two different flight computers • Deployment consists of three separate events • Event #1: Near apogee a black powder charge deploys the drogue parachute • Rocket is in two sections tethered together • Lower body tube with motor and fins • Nose cone, upper body tube with UAV, avionics bay • Exposed and on the 1” Nylon shock cord: • Drogue fully deployed • Main held in bag by Tender Descenders • One of two GPS (to clear carbon fiber body tube)

  47. Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Rocketeers Recovery Events • Event #2: At 950 ft (backup at 850 ft) a second black powder charge in the Tender Descenders deploys the main • Lower body tube with motor and fins still on the main parachute tethered to the avionics bay • Rocket is in two sections tethered together • Lower body tube with motor and fins • Nose cone, upper body tube with UAV, avionics bay • Exposed and on the 1” Nylon shock cord: • Drogue fully deployed • Main Fully Deployed • One of two GPS (to clear carbon fiber body tube)

  48. Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Rocketeers Recovery Events • Event #3: At 800 ft (backup at 750 feet) a third ejection charge separates the rocket further • There are now three pieces descending • Lower body tube with motor and fins still on Main tethered to the avionics bay only • Upper body tube tethered to the nose cone and the opened sabot is all under another deployed parachute • Second GPS is now exposed on the 1” nylon shock cord • UAV has deployed from the sabot and is under its own parachute

  49. Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Rocketeers UAV Events • Event #4 is technically not part of the recovery • system but is next in the sequence of events • Occurs after successful recovery event #2 at 1,000 ft • (altimeter controlled black powder ejection of the sabot • with full deployment of the UAV from that hinged-on-one-end sabot via spring pressure from the bendable wing) • Full UAV deployment is visually validated • Wings have fully unrolled • UAV is not tangled in shroud lines or shock cords • Appears to try to fly away from the parachute • Is safely away from spectators • UAV is at or below 400 ft as indicated on the ground station telemetry (per the FAA AC 91-57 “Do not fly model aircraft higher than 400 feet above the surface”) • Range Safety Officer has given the OK • The UAV is released by command from the ground via the 2.4GHz RC radio via a servo controlled latch

  50. Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Rocketeers UAV Events • The UAV is released from the Sabot via ejection charge under 1000 feet in altitude • The UAV descends on a parachute until it is validated that: • The UAV is fully deployed and flight-worthy • The UAV is under 400 feet in altitude • The UAV is then flown down to a landing while under RC control • Real time video data is returned to the ground station during the flight