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Rome: Importance

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  1. Rome: Importance • “successor” to Greece • “carrier” of Greek civilization • political model for later Europe • measure of success for nations and individuals

  2. Importance, con’t • model for later monarchies • model for later, mixed constitutions • Great Britain, U.S., etc. • model for most European legal systems • model for the concept of citizenship

  3. Roman History • The Regal Age: ca. 779-509 B.C. • The Republic: 509-27 B.C. • The Empire: 27 B.C.-1453 A.D. • Early Empire: 27 B.C.-325 A.D. • Later Empire: 325 A.D.-1453 A.D.

  4. Location • Italy • Tiber River • between Etruscan and Greek cities • part of the Latin League

  5. Early history • Indo-European • entered Italy ca. 2000 B.C. • settled south of the Tiber • primitive institutions

  6. The Kings • Seven kings • Romulus • historical kings? • the Etruscan kings • the last three

  7. The Republic • revolution • patricians (2-4%) and plebeians (96-98%) • constitutional government • influenced by Athens? • the constitution of Cleisthenes?

  8. Offices • 2 consuls • 2 praetors • aediles • quaestors • dictator

  9. Important institutions • the assemblies • the elective offices • patron-client relationships • The Twelve Tables

  10. Struggle of the Orders • struggle for political participation • plebeian institutions: the tribunes • the secessions • the compromises • no political violence until 133 B.C.

  11. Roman Expansion • conquest of Veii: Rome’s “Trojan War” • gradual expansion for a century • the Latin League • extension of citizenship • Romans, half-citizens, Latins, allies • continuous expansion • Celts, Samnites, etc.

  12. Expansion, con’t • Etruscans • Greeks • Carthage ??? • three Punic Wars • 254, 220, 146 B.C. • control of Western Mediterranean

  13. Expansion, con’t • the Hellenistic Monarchies • the Greek Federal Leagues • lots of wars, Romans are dragged in...a lot • Romans get tired of it • control of most of the Med. basin by 100 B.C. • but still essentially a city-state

  14. Roman Religion • rustic Italian cults • overlay of Greek religion • Etruscan influences • Romans as “pack rats”

  15. Roman art • best we don’t even talk about that

  16. Roman architecture • great skill • engineers and architects • roads, cities • concrete

  17. Roman Literature • copied from Greek models • interests in rhetoric, law, and satire • Stoic and Epicurean philosophy

  18. The Late Republic: 133-27 B.C. • introduction of violence into domestic politics • competition for status and recognition • civil war

  19. Important Figures • Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus • Marius and Sulla • Pompey the Great, Marcus Crassus, Julius Caesar • First Triumvirate • Marc Antony, Marcus Lepidus, Octavian Caesar • Second Triumvirate

  20. Gaius Marius

  21. Gaius Julius Caesar

  22. Pompey the Great

  23. Cicero

  24. Octavian Augustus

  25. Octavian as pontifex maximus

  26. Marc Antony

  27. The Empire • unification of the Mediterranean basin and western Europe • extended citizenship • empire-wide commerce • Roman law • tolerance for local autonomy