Rome & Christianity Chapter 6
The Roman Republic • Myth of Rome • Founded by Romulus and Remus • Twins abandoned and raised by she-wolf
The Roman Republic • Benefits of location • Hills • Tiber River • Peninsula • Alps
The Roman Republic • Latins, Greeks, and Etruscans • Alphabet and arch
The Roman Republic • After being taken over and ruled by a number of Etruscan kings, the people of Rome wanted new government • Republic: power rests with the citizens who have the right to vote for their leaders
The Roman Republic • Social classes • Patricians: wealthy landowners with most power • Plebeians: commoners who made up majority of population
Patricians Inherited status Make laws Forced to write the Twelve Tables All free citizens have right to protection of law Plebeians Right to vote Couldn’t hold government positions Tribunes: assemblies of plebeian representatives The Roman Republic
The Roman Republic • By the 1st century B.C.
The Roman Republic • Two consuls • Like kings • Ran military • One-year term • Can veto each other
The Roman Republic • Senate • Originally only had patricians • Made foreign and domestic policies
The Roman Republic • Tribunes & Assemblies • Mostly plebeians • Made laws for the common people
The Roman Republic • Dictator • In times of crisis • In power for only 6 months
The Roman Republic • Roman army • Responsible for much of Rome’s success • All landowners must serve • Highly organized: • Legions: largest military unit
The Roman Republic • Page 157 • With a partner, answer questions #1 and 2 that go with the chart “Comparing Republican Governments”
The Roman Republic • By 265 B.C. Rome had conquered most of Italy • Latins became full citizens • Conquered people had all rights of citizens except the vote • Why do you think the Romans gave full citizens to conquered people living close to Rome?
The Roman Republic • Rome’s only enemy was Carthage (pg. 159) • Punic Wars (264-146 B.C.): • Rome vs. Carthage • Hannibal: famous general of Carthage led a massive attack through Spain to Italian peninsula • Finally defeated Carthage under General Scipio • Rome becomes the power in the Mediterranean!
Assignment Read Ch.6.2 The Roman Empire Complete the 6.2 Study Guide
The Roman Empire • What are the benefits of having a single ruler in power? • What are the drawbacks?
The Roman Empire • Problems in Roman Republic: • Rich/poor gap widened • Poor totaled over half of population • Murders of Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus • As tribunes, attempted to give more land to the poor • Civil war began • Power-hungry military leaders • Recruited the poor by promising land • Soldiers now felt allegiance to generals, not the republic
The Roman Empire • One military leader takes control • Julius Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey • Triumvirate: group of three rulers • Won men’s loyalty because he also fought in war • Served one year as consul, then governor of Gaul
The Roman Empire • Becoming dictator • Success in Gaul gains popular support • Pompey feared Caesar was power-hungry, ordered him to disband his army • Marched to Rome and the senate declared him “dictator for life”
The Roman Empire • Good absolutism? • Had total power, but used it to make reforms • Citizenship granted to provinces • Expanded senate • Created jobs • Increased soldiers’ pay • Created regions where poor could own property
The Roman Empire • Many feared Caesar’s power and popularity • Marcus Brutus and Gaius Cassius plotted to kill him at the Senate • Assassinated on March 15, 44 BC • The irony of his murder? The senators killed Julius Caesar in order to preserve the republic. Instead, it led to the demise of the republic!
The Roman Empire • Second Triumvirate: • Lepidus, Octavian, Marc Antony • Octavian forced Lepidus to retire and defeated Marc Antony/Cleopatra’s forces • Declared “Augustus”: exalted one • Augustus Caesar become Rome’s first emperor!
The Roman Empire • Pax Romana: 200-year period of peace • Stable government • Paid civil service • Stable economy • Agriculture- 90% of ppl worked in farming • Denarius- same coin throughout empire • Extensive network of roads
Augustus as emperor begins the Pax Romana from • 25 BC – AD 180. • “Roman Peace.” Rome had become the Mediterranean and European superpower. It used this power to create peace and prosperity throughout the region. • There was no one to seriously challenge it and Rome could keep people in line or put down rebellions. • Also protected trade. • No civil wars. • There were still wars, mind you, but most of them were to expand Rome’s boundaries or preserve them. Most action was on the borders while the interior stayed safe. • Agriculture was the most important industry in the empire, with farming employing 90% of the people.
Entertainment and Bread and Circuses • Wealth and Social Status made huge differences in how people lived. RICH VS. POOR • Much of Rome’s populace was poor and many unemployed. • This is a recipe for disaster if they’re not kept occupied. • Emperor’s, at state expense, would put on massive entertainment events. • Chariot races at the Circus Maximus. • Gladiator battles at the Colosseum. • Everybody also got grain rations- Rome becomes a welfare state.
The Roman Empire • Roman values • Gravitas: Strength, loyalty, usefulness, power, and discipline
Assignment • Read Section 6.3 The Rise of Christianity • Complete the Ch.6.3 Study Guide (vocab and questions)
Christianity Development, Teaching, and Spread of the Religion
Rise of Christianity • This religion grew out of Jewish traditions. • Jewish prophets predicted that a messiah, or one anointed by Yahweh, would be sent to deliver the Jews from foreign rule • Jesus, founder of Christianity
Rise of Christianity • Gospels: written by the followers of Jesus, tell about the life of Jesus
Rise of Christianity • Roman officials worried about Jesus’ popularity • They considered him to be a rebel • Jesus was sentenced to die by crucifixion
Teachings of Jesus • Monotheism • Believed in the Jewish God and the Ten Commandments • Placed less emphasis on law • More emphasis on compassion, forgiveness, and equality of all people • Taught with parables: short stories with simple moral lessons
Teachings of Jesus • Bible: the holy book of Christianity • Includes all prophets of Torah and most books of the Torah • Adds the New Testament, which includes the Gospels and other books by Jesus’ followers
Spread of Christianity • Compared with Judaism, Christianity spread over far distances in a very short time • This was due to a few factors: • Judaism is mostly an ethnic religion • Missionaries and martyrs • Appeal of Christianity
Spread of Christianity • Followers of Jesus were called “Christians” • Christ= Savior= messiah • Missionaries were able to spread Jesus’ teachings by taking advantage of a peaceful time in the Roman empire, and also good roads were available
Spread of Christianity • Eventually, enough people were involved in Christianity that the Roman empire began to respond • Christians were persecuted for not believing in the Roman gods • Many Christians became martyrs: people who suffer or die for their beliefs
Spread of Christianity • Widespread persecution continued until 313 AD • Emperor Constantine ended persecution of Christians with an Edict of tolerance • He converted on his deathbed
ASSIGNMENT • Homework: • Read Ch. 6.4/6.5 • Complete Section 4 and 5 worksheets
Ch.6.4 and 6.5 The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Rome and the Roots of Western Civilization
Fall of the Roman Empire • How have people responded to difficult economic times and political uncertainty? • Panic • Pessimism • Anxiety • Anger/blame
Contributing Factors to the Fall of the Western Roman Empire • Economic Reasons • Military Reasons • Political Reasons • Social Reasons
Economic reasons • 180 AD is the end to Pax Romana • Reached limit of expansion, lacked new resources • Crushing taxes • Inflation: drop in value of money and rise in prices • Poor harvests • Overworked soil • Warfare destroyed land
Fall of the Roman Empire Can an empire become too big???
Military reasons (One of the bigger reasons for the split) • Long borders • As the empire expanded, so did its borders. • Maintaining those borders against enemies became a massive and expensive endeavor. • Military spending took a significant chunk of the treasury and took money away from many public projects. • Use of Mercenaries • Rome also began hiring mercenaries. These guys worked for cash, not loyalty, and could be highly unreliable. They were also loyal to their general, and not to the idea of “Rome”.
Political Reasons • Political office seen as a burden, not a reward • Military interference in politics • Civil war and unrest (at one point, there were 50 emperors in the space of 25 yrs!) • Division of the empire between East and West • Moving of the capital to Byzantium
Social Reasons • Decline in interest in public affairs • Low confidence in the empire • Disloyalty, lack of patriotism, corruption • Contrast between rich and poor • Decline in population due to disease and food shortage • Immorality