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Food Safety For Food Co-ops. Cindy Brison, MS, RD UNL Extension in Douglas and Sarpy Counties. Reviewed By:. George Hanssen, Food Division Administrator for The Nebraska Department of Agriculture

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food safety for food co ops

Food Safety For Food Co-ops

Cindy Brison, MS, RD

UNL Extension in Douglas and Sarpy Counties

reviewed by
Reviewed By:
  • George Hanssen, Food Division Administrator for The Nebraska Department of Agriculture
  • Jere Ferrazzo, Supervisor of the Food and Drink Section for the Douglas County Department of Health
  • Nancy Urbanec, Extension Associate, UNL Extension in Douglas and Sarpy Counties
food borne illness
Food Borne Illness
  • A disease transmitted to people by food
  • Caused by microorganisms
  • Foods that allow microorganisms to grow are called
    • POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS
potentially hazardous
Potentially Hazardous
  • "Potentially hazardous food" means a food that is natural or synthetic and that requires temperature control because it is in a form capable of supporting:
    • The rapid and progressive growth of infectious or toxigenic microorganisms
potentially hazardous food
"Potentially Hazardous Food"
  • Includes an animal food (a food of animal origin) that is raw or heat-treated; a food of plant origin that is heat-treated or consists of raw seed sprouts; cut melons; and garlic-in-oil mixtures that are not modified in a way that results in mixtures that do not support growth
foods that cause food borne illness
Foods That Cause Food Borne Illness
  • Meat, poultry, pork ,fish, tofu, dairy products and eggs
  • Things that are re-hydrated
    • Beans, rice, oatmeal
  • Anything grown in the ground or on the ground
    • Potatoes, beets, carrots, onions, lettuce, garlic, celery, mushrooms, melons, tomatoes, herbs, sprouts
statistics
Statistics
  • Tomatoes and melons have caused more incidences of salmonella in the last two years than eggs and poultry
almonds and salmonella
Almonds and Salmonella
  • All almonds are now pasteurized (September 2007)—even those labeled raw—with gas, heat, steam or chemicals
    • Also blanching and oil roasting
  • Only 5% of all almonds in the US are consumed raw
  • California produces 100% of the US’s almonds and 80% of the worlds almonds
usda nutritional database
USDA Nutritional Database
  • How do roasted almonds compare nutritionally with natural almonds? What about blanched vs. natural almonds? To learn more about a specific almond form, visit the USDA Nutrient Database and search under the term "almond." You can choose the form you are interested in at http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/search/.
fermented foods
Fermented Foods
  • Bacteria can still grow in acidic environments if handled inappropriately
    • Example—improperly canned pickles
garlic handle with care
Garlic—Handle With Care
  • Garlic and oil mixtures may grow botulism bacteria
  • When making garlic in oil mixtures:
    • Make a small amount
    • Keep it in the refrigerator when not in use
    • Discard after one week
ways foods become unsafe
Ways Foods Become Unsafe
  • Cross-contamination
  • Time-temperature abuse
  • Poor personal hygiene
  • Improper cleaning and sanitizing
cross contamination
Cross-contamination
  • Letting raw foods drip on ready to eat foods
  • Touching ready to eat foods with your hands
  • Accidentally storing chemicals near food items
time temperature abuse
Time-Temperature Abuse
  • Danger zone---41°-135°
  • Four hours
  • Bacteria doubles every twenty minutes
  • Grows the best at room temperatures
  • Continues to grow in the refrigerator and freezer
eggs and safe handling
Eggs and Safe Handling
  • Hard boiled eggs are still potentially hazardous and must be stored at 41° or lower
  • Eggs are porous, and should not be washed, as chemicals can be absorbed
slide16
Eggs
  • To warm up eggs for a recipe:
    • Run under warm water for a few minutes to bring it to room temperature
    • Do not let it sit out on the counter
poor personal hygiene
Poor Personal Hygiene
  • Dirty uniforms
  • Poor hand washing
  • Smoking and eating around food
  • Not taking off aprons before using the bathroom
  • Not keeping hair covered
improper cleaning and sanitizing
Improper Cleaning and Sanitizing
  • Not using the correct chemicals
  • Not mixing the chemicals correctly
  • Not washing, rinsing and air drying food contact surfaces between use
who is more likely to get sick
Who Is More Likely to Get Sick
  • Anyone eating raw or undercooked foods
  • Anyone with reduced immunities
    • Small children
    • The elderly
    • Anyone sick—colds, on medications, cancer
    • Pregnant women
    • Alcoholics, anorexics, transplant patients
how to prevent food borne illness
How to Prevent Food Borne Illness

Http://www.Fightbac.org

personal hygiene
Personal Hygiene
  • Clean Clothes
  • Shower daily
  • Short nails
  • No polish
  • Band-aids and gloves for cuts
  • Minimal jewelry
slide22
Don’t work when you are ill
  • Do not eat, drink or smoke while handling food
  • Wear gloves when handling ready to eat foods
    • Use non-latex gloves to prevent allergic reactions
    • This does not replace hand washing
hand washing
Hand Washing
  • Hot water (at least 100° F)
  • Soap (not bar soap)
  • Friction for at least 20 seconds
  • Rinse
  • Dry with disposable towels
  • Turn off water and open bathroom door with towel
  • Dispose of towel
when to wash your hands
When to Wash Your Hands
  • Before preparing or eating food
  • After going to the bathroom
  • After changing diapers or cleaning up a child who has gone to the bathroom
  • Before and after tending to someone who is sick
  • After blowing your nose, coughing, or sneezing
  • After handling an animal or animal waste
  • After handling garbage
  • Before and after treating a cut or wound
sanitizing gels
Sanitizing Gels
  • Use after hand washing
  • Recommended for use if soap and water is not present
  • Over use of antibacterial gels may cause anti-biotic resistance
food service regulations
Food Service Regulations
  • When dealing with food—hand washing with soap and water is the best for killing certain types of bacteria
lotion
Lotion
  • Lotion is not recommended after hand washing in food service
  • Can leave a moist environment for bacterial growth
temperature danger zone
Temperature Danger Zone
  • 41° to 135°
  • Bacteria grows best at room temperature
  • Keep potentially hazardous foods hot or cold
  • 4 hours is the limit
delivery vehicle
Delivery Vehicle
  • Refrigeration is the best
  • Using coolers with ice and gel packs
  • Dry ice for frozen items
  • Vehicle must be clean and sanitary
  • Items that the food is stored in must be cleaned and sanitized
    • Coolers
    • Crates
    • Containers
slide33
Food delivery person must practice good hand washing practices
  • Delivery vehicle cleaned out frequently
  • Dollies and other transportation items must be cleaned also
  • No cross contamination of perishable versus fresh
sanitizing delivery equipment
Sanitizing Delivery Equipment
  • Coolers should be washed, rinsed, and sanitized between each use
  • Use a solution of 1 tablespoon of unscented bleach to 1 gallon of water in a spray bottle
  • Allow it to sit for two minutes before wiping with a disposable towel
  • Solution needs to be checked with test strips
    • Possibly re-mix every four hours while in constant use
peroxide and vinegar
Peroxide and Vinegar
  • Cannot be used as a food service sanitizer
    • Cannot be tested for strength
    • Does not have a test strip
    • Per the Nebraska Department of Health
    • Produces another type of acid if mixed that is not totally safe
delivery trucks
Delivery Trucks
  • Should be kept between 50°-70° if all perishable foods are kept in coolers/freezers
  • If the truck is refrigerated—then below 41°
transportation
Transportation
  • Items that are frozen must stay at 0° or lower
  • Items that are cold must stay at 41° or lower
  • Fresh fruits and vegetables must be handled appropriately, as should dry goods
delivery equipment
Delivery Equipment
  • Must be able to hold the appropriate temperature for the entire length of trip
  • Ice, dry ice, gel packs, and freezer packs are all appropriate
  • Sanitize reusable frozen items between uses
  • Best practice—keep a thermometer in the cooler
  • More ice when temperatures are warmer
delivering produce
Delivering Produce
  • Items like squash, onions, potatoes and garlic are considered shelf stable until cut or cooked, and can be delivered in non-refrigerated containers
  • Sliced melons and tomatoes must be kept at 41° or lower
receiving41
Receiving
  • All frozen items should be received frozen at 0°
  • All cold items should be received at 41° or lower
    • Eggs and shellfish can be received at 45°
receiving and storing
Receiving and Storing
  • Items should be unpacked and stored as soon as possible
  • Time in the temperature danger zone is cumulative
  • Do not accept any foods that have been time-temperature abused
reject food items if
Reject Food Items If:
  • The packaging is broken
  • They leak
  • Cans are swollen
  • There are large ice crystals on the box
  • There are signs of pests
  • Dry goods are wet or damaged
  • Food is expired
receiving fresh meat
Receiving Fresh Meat
  • Beef, lamb, and pork
  • Bright in color
  • Cold or frozen
  • Firm and springs back when touched
  • No sour odors
  • No off colors
receiving fresh meat45
Receiving Fresh Meat
  • Meat must be processed in a USDA or state approved facility and properly labeled for sale to the public
receiving fresh poultry
Receiving Fresh Poultry
  • Cold fresh poultry should be packed on crushed, self-draining ice
  • Frozen
  • No discolorations or dark wing tips
  • Firm and springs back when touched
  • Not sticky
  • No unpleasant odor
receiving fresh fish
Receiving Fresh Fish
  • Fresh on crushed, self-draining ice
  • Frozen
  • Bright red gills, shiny skin, bulging eyes
  • Flesh springs back when you touch it
  • Mild ocean or seaweed odor—not fishy
receiving fresh shell eggs
Receiving Fresh Shell Eggs
  • Cold
  • Clean, unbroken shells
  • Not dirty, cracked, or smelly
  • Clean “farm fresh eggs” with a clean cloth and fresh water
  • Sometime a brush can be used to clean any adhering soils
receiving dairy products
Receiving Dairy Products
  • Cold or frozen
  • Typical flavor
  • Uniform color, texture, smell
  • No mold, nothing expired
storage51
Storage
  • Make sure that you have enough room to store all food items
  • Do not overload refrigerators and freezers for good air circulation
  • Refrigerators should maintain 41° or lower
  • Freezers should maintain 0° or lower
  • Check temperatures of delivered foods with a thermometer
storage52
Storage
  • Make sure storage areas are clean and sanitized—frequently—based on use
    • Once a month deliveries will not mean the store room needs to be cleaned daily
  • Everything must be stored at least 6 inches off of the floor
  • Monitor for pests
  • FIFO
cold storage
Cold Storage
  • Store ready to eat on the top shelf of the refrigerator
  • Steaks, chops, roasts and fish on the next shelf
  • Ground meat on the next shelf
  • Poultry and ground poultry on the bottom
  • Based on cooking temperatures
cooking temperatures
Cooking Temperatures
  • All steaks, roasts and fish must be cooked to 145°
  • Ground meat/fish cooked to 155°
  • Brined and injected meats cooked to 155°°
  • Poultry and ground poultry cooked to 165°
  • Anything cooked in a microwave cooked to 165°
  • Leftovers cooked to 165°
prepared food stored for 24 hours
Prepared Food Stored for 24 Hours
  • Must be labeled and dated
  • Must be covered
  • Must be disposed of within 7 days
dry storage and ethylene gas
Dry Storage and Ethylene Gas
  • Ethylene gas is naturally produced by some fruits and vegetables
  • Aides in the ripening process
  • Keep produce intact and unwashed until ready to use it
  • Never refrigerate potatoes, onions, winter squash or garlic—and store separately
refrigerate these gas releasers
Refrigerate These Gas Releasers
  • ApplesApricotsCantaloupeFigsHoneydew
do not refrigerate these gas releasers
Do Not Refrigerate These Gas Releasers
  • AvocadosBananas, unripeNectarinesPeachesPearsPlums Tomatoes
keep these away from gas releasers
Bananas, ripeBroccoliBrussels sproutsCabbage Carrots CauliflowerCucumbersEggplant

Lettuce and other leafy greens ParsleyPeasPeppersSquash Sweet potatoesWatermelon 

Keep These Away From Gas Releasers
jerky
Jerky
  • Jerky must be processed in a USDA inspected plant to be sold legally to the public (customers) in the United States
thermometers
Thermometers
  • Must be washed, rinsed and sanitized between uses
  • Must be accurate to +/- 2°
  • Can be used for either hot or cold foods
  • No glass thermometers used in food service
  • Must have thermometers in the coldest and warmest spots in the refrigerator/freezer
calibrating thermometers
Calibrating Thermometers
  • Place thermometer in an ice slush past the dimple
  • Wait for it to stop
  • Adjust thermometer to 32° while leaving it in the water
  • Calibrate thermometer after dropping it
  • Never run through a dishwasher
using a thermometer
Using a Thermometer
  • Always place it in the thickest part of a food item
  • Must go past the dimple
  • Measure thin foods sideways
  • Measure packaged foods by placing the thermometer between packages
storing shelf stable items
Storing Shelf Stable Items
  • Fresh Produce can be stored on a clean shelf or a bin
    • Fruits, vegetables, trail mix, breads

From the blog "The Ice Man Cometh--Spring Edition"

dispensing of foods
Dispensing of Foods
  • Keep foods hot or cold until picked up
  • Encourage individuals to use sanitized coolers with ice to keep foods out of the temperature danger zone
slide70
When bagging potentially hazardous foods, gloves should be used or tongs
  • The state food code does not allow a handlers hands to touch ready to eat foods

Alliance Rubber

definitions
Definitions
  • Cleaning—removing food and soil
    • Usually done with soap and water
    • Table tops, dishes, delivery vehicles, etc…
    • Can be food and non-food contact surfaces
  • Sanitizing---reducing the amount of microorganisms to a safe level
    • Usually involves a chemical
    • Can be done with hot water (180° F)
    • Involves a food contact surface
statistics74
Statistics
  • The levels of bacteria are greater in your kitchen sink than in your toilet
  • They are also higher on your cell phone and your steering wheel
buckets
Buckets
  • Cleaning and sanitizing pails must be kept separate
  • Monitor the chemical in the sanitizing bucket often with the correct test strips
  • Mix chemicals per their instructions
when to clean and sanitize
When to Clean and Sanitize
  • Food contact surfaces must be washed, rinsed, and sanitized:
    • Each time you use them
    • When you are interrupted during preparation
    • When you start working with a different type of food
    • At least every four hours
factors effecting sanitizers
Factors Effecting Sanitizers
  • Hardness of the water
  • The water temperature
  • The concentration of the chemical
  • The time the chemical stays in contact with the food contact surface
chemical safety
Chemical Safety
  • Never mix two chemicals together
  • Have copies of Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) available for all chemicals used
  • Keep these in a conspicuous place that all are aware of
how to use a three compartment sink
How to Use a Three Compartment Sink
  • Sanitize the entire sink area
  • Scrape and rinse all items
  • Wash in hot soapy water (110°)
  • Rinse in hot, clear water (110°)
  • Immerse in sanitizer for the correct amount of time
  • Air dry all items
questions
Questions????????????????
  • Call your local Health Department
  • Call your local Extension Office
  • Call Cindy Brison, MS, RD at the UNL Extension Office at 1-402-444-7804
  • Email the UNL Extension Office in Douglas and Sarpy Counties
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